Umar, the son of Khattab was born about twelve years after the birth of the Prophet in Mecca. His father was an educated merchant, who taught his son reading and writing. He was a poet, orator and fond of archery, horse-riding and wrestling. He embraced Islam in the 6th year of the Prophethood.
He became the caliph at the age of 52 years after the death of Abu Bakr in accordance with his will. He also launched several expeditions and expanded the Islamic state, such as the battle with the Persians, battle of Namarraq, Jasr, Buwaib, Qadisiya, Jalula, Nihawand, Yarmuk, etc. He also captured Madain and Jerusalem. He conquered Egypt in 18/639. He not only conquered a vast empire, but also consolidated it by an effective system of administration. He maintained a well-disciplined army, which was divided into cavalry and infantry. It was he who introduced the Islamic era. He took severe steps to check hoarding and appointed officers to check weights and measures.
After the battle of Nihawand, many Persians were taken as captives. One of these slaves was Abu Lulu, known as Firoz. In 23/644, Firoz attached on Umar with a dagger and inflicted several wounds, who survived for some days. His period of caliphate lasted for 10 years, 6 months and 4 days.