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Sectarian References of Political Position of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs in 11th and 12th centuries

Publication Type  Article
Year of Publication  2020
Date Published  2020
Authors  Demirtaş, Dücane
Alternate Title  Introductory_Anthology_Paper_on_the_Sect
Key Words  Reinterpretation; Quran and hadith; Islam; tabiins; Zoroastrian culture; Hellenistic culture of Near East; Banu Hashim; Banu Umayya; Mecca; Uthman; Muaviye; caliphate of Ali; Hashimi
Abstract  

Reinterpretation of Quran and hadith, both of which had been mainly seen two basic sources of Islam, was a critical issue of the late 8th century when the last tabiins were died. Esbab-ı nüzul which only could place each verse of Quran in the context of early 6th century of Mecca and Medina gave way to diversified interpretations of Quran in new conquered lands, especially in Zoroastrian culture of Iran and in Hellenistic culture of Near East. However, these varied theological understandings on the basic sources of Islam to disclose its “real interpretation” were related to politics more than theology. Before cahilliyye, Banu Hashim and Banu Umayya were two dominant families in Mecca, which had always conflicted with each other to control governance of the city and the struggle rose again when Prophet was died in 632. The critical turning points were the murder of third caliphate Uthman, being family member of Banu Umayya and be accused of usurping the divine right to rule of Ali given by Prophet Muhammed, and rising of Muaviye who also member of Umayya clan and claimed sovereignty against the caliphate of Ali, being Hashimi. After the murder of Hussein, son of Ali, by Yazid in 680, most of the opponents against Umayyads gathered around uninstitutionalized Shia identity.


Sectarian References of Political Position of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs in 11th and 12th centuries

Reinterpretation of Quran and hadith, both of which had been mainly seen two basic sources of Islam, was a critical issue of the late 8th century when the last tabiins were died. Esbab-ı nüzul which only could place each verse of Quran in the context of early 6th century of Mecca and Medina gave way to diversified interpretations of Quran in new conquered lands, especially in Zoroastrian culture of Iran and in Hellenistic culture of Near East. However, these varied theological understandings on the basic sources of Islam to disclose its “real interpretation” were related to politics more than theology. Before cahilliyye, Banu Hashim and Banu Umayya were two dominant families in Mecca, which had always conflicted with each other to control governance of the city and the struggle rose again when Prophet was died in 632. The critical turning points were the murder of third caliphate Uthman, being family member of Banu Umayya and be accused of usurping the divine right to rule of Ali given by Prophet Muhammed, and rising of Muaviye who also member of Umayya clan and claimed sovereignty against the caliphate of Ali, being Hashimi. After the murder of Hussein, son of Ali, by Yazid in 680, most of the opponents against Umayyads gathered around uninstitutionalized Shia identity.

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