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[ see WUZU ]

SIBAK AL-KHAYL

Horse is an important and valuable member of the mammalia. Among the earliest evidence of the importance of the horse to human culture are the unearthed wall paintings in the caves of Lascaux, in southern France, dating around 30,000 B.C. The horse first became useful in welfare sometimes before 1500 B.C. when Mesopotamian people began to use horses to pull their chariots. There is however a question rose by Canon Taylor in his Origin of the Aryans (p.161), whether the horse was at first used for drawing chariots or for riding.

ZAMZAM

The word zamzan or zamazim means abundant of water. Some suggests that it means to drink with little gulps. Abdullah bin Abbas narrates that they called the zamzan as subha meaning one which fills stomach. The Prophet also called it khayur ma'in (excellent water). The sacred well is located at the perimeter of the sacred complex of Mecca.

ZAYN AL-ABIDIN (61-94/680-713), 3RD IMAM

"Abu Muhammad Ali bin Hussain, known as Zayn al-Abidin (ornament of the pious) and by the titles of as-Sajjad (the prostrator) and az-Zaki (the pure), was born in Medina on 38/658. He would feed the hungry persons at night, from one to three hundred families; and in daytime, he would have a hundred sheep a day killed for meat, which would be distributed to the needy people. Much of his time he spent sitting on an old piece of matting, fasting all day, or eating a little barely bread. D.M. Donaldson writes in The Shi'ite Religion (London, 1933, p.

ZIKR

The word zikr (pl. azkar), zikra or tazikra is derived from z-k-r appear in 274 Koranic verses, means remembrance or recollection. The most important significance of the first form of the verb is "thinking about" or "calling to mind" with the remembrance of God being the primary focus. The Koran says, "and remember God often" (33:40) and "the remembrance of God makes the heart calm" (13:28).

ZULFIKAR

It means possessor of notches or the Lord of the vertebrae of the back. It was the name borne by a famous sword owned in turn by a pagan called al-As bin Munabbih, who was killed in the battle of Badr. The Prophet acquired it in a booty and presented to Ali bin Abu Talib. The expression of zulfikar (dhu'l fiqar or dhu'l faqar) is explained by the presence of this sword of notches (fukra) or grooves. It was double-edged (shafratani) and its blade was strengthened in the middle by a pole (amud).

ZULFIKAR ALI (920-922/1514-1516), 37TH IMAM

Zulfikar Ali, known as Khalil or Khalilullah, was born most probably in 900/1394, and resided in Anjudan. Syed Imam Shah (d. 926/1520) described the name Shah Khalil most possibly for Imam Zulfikar Ali.

USHR

The tax on land produce was collected at 10% if the land was watered by a stream or rain. This tax was known as ushr.

YAUM AL-IMAMA

It means the

TARAWIH

The word tarawih is the plural of tarwiha, which is derived from raha and means the act of taking rest. It denotes the recitation of the whole Koran in the month of Ramzan. It is the performance of the Sunnis, not Shi'ites during the month of Ramzan. This practice was introduced by caliph Umar.

TABI'I

The word tabi'i (pl. tabi'un) is derived from its verb, tabi'a or taba'a, meaning he followed. Thus, the tabi'i refers to follower, disciple or adherent. The word is of special significance in tradition, where the name tabi is given to those who came after the Companion (sahaba) of the Prophet. The tabi'un are those of the next generation or contemporaries of the Prophet, who did not know him personally but who knew one of his Companions.

USUL'I DIN & FURU'I DIN

The word usul is the plural of asl, which means a root or a principle, and furu is the plural of far which means a branch. The former is also called aqaid (pl. of aqida, lit. what one is bound to) or belief, and the latter ahkam (pl. of hukm, lit. an order) or the ordinances and regulations of Islam.

YAUM AL-MITHAQ

"The word mithaq is derived from wathiqa meaning to place confidence in someone Thus, mithaq means the covenant, occurring 25 times in the Koran. The Yaum al-mithaq means the day of the covenant or the day of primordial, also called yaum ad-darr, meaning, the day of specks.

TASBIH

"The word tasbih is derived from sbh means to glide or swim. In Aramaic it had long meant to praise. The Arabic writers describe this type of praise as swimming in a shoreless sea: "He praises (yusabbih) in a shoreless sea" (Majmu'atu'l Ahzab, p. 563). The saying of the great phrase subhana

TABUK, BATTLE OF

With the conquest of Mecca, Islam marched with galloping speed throughout the length and breath of Arabia. The neighbouring Christian states, especially the Roman empire, were watching this unprecedented, triumphant march with a great concern and anxiety.

UTHMAN

"Uthman, the son of Affan was born in Mecca in the 6th year of the Elephants. He belonged to the Umayyad tribe. His father was a richest merchant. He was first among the Ummayad to become a Muslim. He also participated in the migration of Abyssinia. He took leading part in serving the cause of Islam and earned the title of Ghani for spending his wealth.

YAUM-I ALI

"The Shi'ite Muslims celebrate every 13h of Rajab as Yaum-i Ali, the birth anniversary of Ali bin Abu Talib. The birth of Ali in the sanctuary of Kaba denotes a herald of the divine guidance to be continued after the Prophet, who had said, "I am the Lord of revelation (tanzil) and Ali is the Lord of tawil (interpretation)." It implies that the inner (batin) aspects of the Koran will be imparted by Ali and his descendants in every age till the day of judgment.

TASWIR

The word taswir is a verbal noun from the second form verb, sawwara means to form, fashion, depict, represent or illustrate. It is the principal term used in Arabic for both the representational arts including painting, drawing, sketching, engraving and photography. It is often synonymous with sura and the rarer taswira or their respective plural forms suwar (82:8) and taswir. The Koranic usage of verb sawwara suggests it had a primary meaning of giving form or shape to a person (40:64, 64:3, 7:11, 3:6).

TAFSIR

The word tafsir( pl. tafasir) is derived from the verb fassara, meaning to explain, open, unveil or discover something hidden. The emergence of the word tafsir as a technical term is unclear. It occurs once in the Koran (25:33) : "They do not bring to you any similitude, but what We bring to you (is) the truth and better in exposition (wa ahsana tafsiran)." In Islamic terminology, tafsir means an interpretation or commentary of the Koran.

VAKIL

The term vakil was a short form of vakil'i shah (vicegerent of the Lord) or vakil'i mawla (vicegerent of the Imam), and the term vakil'i nafs'i nafis'i humayun (vicegerent of the Imam in both his spiritual and temporal capacities) was used in Iran for the hujjat, or Pir. The word vakil means representative. Ordinarily, the office of the vakil was coined for a responsible person to represent the hujjat or Pir. The Imams appointed the vakils, but some times, the hujjat also appointed with the consent of the Imam.


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