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[ see WUZU ]

SIBAK AL-KHAYL

Horse is an important and valuable member of the mammalia. Among the earliest evidence of the importance of the horse to human culture are the unearthed wall paintings in the caves of Lascaux, in southern France, dating around 30,000 B.C. The horse first became useful in welfare sometimes before 1500 B.C. when Mesopotamian people began to use horses to pull their chariots. There is however a question rose by Canon Taylor in his Origin of the Aryans (p.161), whether the horse was at first used for drawing chariots or for riding.

ZAMZAM

The word zamzan or zamazim means abundant of water. Some suggests that it means to drink with little gulps. Abdullah bin Abbas narrates that they called the zamzan as subha meaning one which fills stomach. The Prophet also called it khayur ma'in (excellent water). The sacred well is located at the perimeter of the sacred complex of Mecca.

ZAYN AL-ABIDIN (61-94/680-713), 3RD IMAM

"Abu Muhammad Ali bin Hussain, known as Zayn al-Abidin (ornament of the pious) and by the titles of as-Sajjad (the prostrator) and az-Zaki (the pure), was born in Medina on 38/658. He would feed the hungry persons at night, from one to three hundred families; and in daytime, he would have a hundred sheep a day killed for meat, which would be distributed to the needy people. Much of his time he spent sitting on an old piece of matting, fasting all day, or eating a little barely bread. D.M. Donaldson writes in The Shi'ite Religion (London, 1933, p.

ZIKR

The word zikr (pl. azkar), zikra or tazikra is derived from z-k-r appear in 274 Koranic verses, means remembrance or recollection. The most important significance of the first form of the verb is "thinking about" or "calling to mind" with the remembrance of God being the primary focus. The Koran says, "and remember God often" (33:40) and "the remembrance of God makes the heart calm" (13:28).

ZULFIKAR

It means possessor of notches or the Lord of the vertebrae of the back. It was the name borne by a famous sword owned in turn by a pagan called al-As bin Munabbih, who was killed in the battle of Badr. The Prophet acquired it in a booty and presented to Ali bin Abu Talib. The expression of zulfikar (dhu'l fiqar or dhu'l faqar) is explained by the presence of this sword of notches (fukra) or grooves. It was double-edged (shafratani) and its blade was strengthened in the middle by a pole (amud).

ZULFIKAR ALI (920-922/1514-1516), 37TH IMAM

Zulfikar Ali, known as Khalil or Khalilullah, was born most probably in 900/1394, and resided in Anjudan. Syed Imam Shah (d. 926/1520) described the name Shah Khalil most possibly for Imam Zulfikar Ali.

VOLUNTARY SERVICES

"The English word voluntar is borrowed from Latin, voluntary-ius or French, voluntaire means freely undertaken. It is a feeling arising or developing in the mind without external constraint having a purely spontaneous origin or character. Voluntary service refers to a work done with an intention of assisting others without expectation of its reward. Voluntary service is a universal concept and not confined to a specific culture, group or region. It is probably as old as mankind.

YOGA

The Sanskrit word yoga is derived from the root yuj means to bind together, hold fast or yoke, which also governs the Latin iungere and iugum, and the French joug and so on. Yoga signifies a union of the individual soul with the Supreme Spirit. It is an old Indian practice, imparting that the man's bondage results identification of the soul with the body and that his liberation is attained through the knowledge of their separateness.

TAHDDI AL-NASL

"Tahddi al-nasl means family planning. Planning is required in everything, be it concrete, sentimental, economical, social or intellectual. God declares in the Koran: "All things have We created after a fixed decree." (54:49) Similarly, the term "family" has a broad and deep meaning. The family is the first brick or unit in the social structure. To build up a family, it requires planning and providence for the number of one's offspring.

TAUZ

"The word tauz is derived from azha (synonym lazha), which appears to have the root meaning of clinging, as of flesh to bones, and hence expresses clinging to someone for refuge from some persons or some cause of fear. Every recitation of the Koran must begin with the formula of refuge, i.e., the isti'adhah which reads: A'uzu bi-llahi min al-shaitani'r-rajim (I seek refuge in God from the stoned Satan). It has been made obligatory through the Koran: "When you recite the Koran, seek refuge in God from Satan, the stoned one" (16:98).

WAFI AHMAD (197-212/813-828), 8TH IMAM

"Abdullah bin Muhammad, surnamed ar-Radi, Nasir or al-Wafi (true to one's word) was also known as ar-Radi Abdullah al-Wafi or Wafi Ahmad, was born in 149/766. The tradition relates that Imam Wafi Ahmad was locally known as attar (druggist) in Nishapur and Salamia, a surname he earned after his profession in drug and medicine as a protection against his real position. He was however represented by his hujjat, Abdullah bin Maymun (d. 260/874).

ZAHIR (411-427/1021-1036), 17TH IMAM

"He was born on 20th Ramzan, 395/June 4, 1005. His name was Ali Abul Hasan, or Abu Ma'd, surnamed az-Zahir la-azaz dinallah (Assister in exalting the religion of God). His mother Amina was the daughter of Abdullah, the son of Imam al-Muizz. He acceded on the throne of Fatimid Caliphate and Imamate on 411/1021 at the age of 16 years. On the occasion of his coronation, a special payment in excess (fadl) of 20 dinars was granted to each soldier.

TAJ

"The word taj is a Persian loanword in Arabic, which is derived from the old Persian tag, meaning crown. It is said that Dahhak was the first to wear the crown in the world. According to the hadith, "The turbans are the crowns of the Arabs" (al-ama'im tijan al-arab).

WAHY

"The word wahy is derived from waha, meaning inspire, reveal, give an idea or impression or hasty suggestion. Wahy originally signifies the making quick sign as wahiyyun means something hasty or quick, mawtun wahiyyun means a quick death, or amrun wahyun means a fast matter. Hence, it signifies the divine words communicated to His prophets.

ZAKAT

The word zakat is derived from zaka, means it (a plant) grew, as it is said zaka al-zar (the crop grew). The other derivatives of this word, as used in the Koran (87:14), carry the sense of purification from sins, i.e., qad aflaha man tazakka (verily the pure ones prospered). According to Raghib, zakat is wealth which is taken from the rich and given to the poor, being so called because it makes wealth grew, or because the giving away of wealth is a source of purification. The word zakat occurs 32 times in the Koran.

TAWHID

The word tawhid, infinitive of the second form of the Arabic verb w-h-d, literally means making one or asserting oneness. Derivations include wahhada means to unite, unify, connect, join, profess; wahdah means oneness, singleness, al-wahid means the One and al-ahad means the singular without number. It is applied theologically to the Oneness (wahdaniya, tawahhud) of God in all its meanings. It is the first and basic brick to believe in Islam, i.e. faith in the Unity of God.

TAJALLI

"The word tajalli (pl. tajalliat) means theophany, theophan, self-disclosure or illumination. The Koran say: "And when Moses came to Our appointed time and his Lord spoke with him (kallamahu rabbuhu), he said, O my Lord, show me, that I may behold Thee!

WALIDAN

The terms designating parents in the Koran are walidani and abawani respectively the dual form of walid (father); walida (mother) appears in both the singular and the plural. The term umm and ummahat also designate mother, and the dual form of ab, father. In certain verses the plural aba means ancestors. Natural aspects of parenthood are particularly identified throughout the Koran with maternal functions, pregnancy, giving birth, breastfeeding and weaning (16:78, 39:6, 53:32, 58:2).

ZAMANA GALLERY

"The Zamana Gallery, dedicated to presenting arts, architecture and culture of the developing world, particularly the Islamic world, is the first of its kind in the west. It was established by the Present Imam and falls unde the auspices of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture.

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