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[ see WUZU ]

SIBAK AL-KHAYL

Horse is an important and valuable member of the mammalia. Among the earliest evidence of the importance of the horse to human culture are the unearthed wall paintings in the caves of Lascaux, in southern France, dating around 30,000 B.C. The horse first became useful in welfare sometimes before 1500 B.C. when Mesopotamian people began to use horses to pull their chariots. There is however a question rose by Canon Taylor in his Origin of the Aryans (p.161), whether the horse was at first used for drawing chariots or for riding.

ZULFIKAR

It means possessor of notches or the Lord of the vertebrae of the back. It was the name borne by a famous sword owned in turn by a pagan called al-As bin Munabbih, who was killed in the battle of Badr. The Prophet acquired it in a booty and presented to Ali bin Abu Talib. The expression of zulfikar (dhu'l fiqar or dhu'l faqar) is explained by the presence of this sword of notches (fukra) or grooves. It was double-edged (shafratani) and its blade was strengthened in the middle by a pole (amud).

ZULFIKAR ALI (920-922/1514-1516), 37TH IMAM

Zulfikar Ali, known as Khalil or Khalilullah, was born most probably in 900/1394, and resided in Anjudan. Syed Imam Shah (d. 926/1520) described the name Shah Khalil most possibly for Imam Zulfikar Ali.

ZAMZAM

The word zamzan or zamazim means abundant of water. Some suggests that it means to drink with little gulps. Abdullah bin Abbas narrates that they called the zamzan as subha meaning one which fills stomach. The Prophet also called it khayur ma'in (excellent water). The sacred well is located at the perimeter of the sacred complex of Mecca.

ZAYN AL-ABIDIN (61-94/680-713), 3RD IMAM

"Abu Muhammad Ali bin Hussain, known as Zayn al-Abidin (ornament of the pious) and by the titles of as-Sajjad (the prostrator) and az-Zaki (the pure), was born in Medina on 38/658. He would feed the hungry persons at night, from one to three hundred families; and in daytime, he would have a hundred sheep a day killed for meat, which would be distributed to the needy people. Much of his time he spent sitting on an old piece of matting, fasting all day, or eating a little barely bread. D.M. Donaldson writes in The Shi'ite Religion (London, 1933, p.

ZIKR

The word zikr (pl. azkar), zikra or tazikra is derived from z-k-r appear in 274 Koranic verses, means remembrance or recollection. The most important significance of the first form of the verb is "thinking about" or "calling to mind" with the remembrance of God being the primary focus. The Koran says, "and remember God often" (33:40) and "the remembrance of God makes the heart calm" (13:28).

TAFSIR

The word tafsir( pl. tafasir) is derived from the verb fassara, meaning to explain, open, unveil or discover something hidden. The emergence of the word tafsir as a technical term is unclear. It occurs once in the Koran (25:33) : "They do not bring to you any similitude, but what We bring to you (is) the truth and better in exposition (wa ahsana tafsiran)." In Islamic terminology, tafsir means an interpretation or commentary of the Koran.

TASWIR

The word taswir is a verbal noun from the second form verb, sawwara means to form, fashion, depict, represent or illustrate. It is the principal term used in Arabic for both the representational arts including painting, drawing, sketching, engraving and photography. It is often synonymous with sura and the rarer taswira or their respective plural forms suwar (82:8) and taswir. The Koranic usage of verb sawwara suggests it had a primary meaning of giving form or shape to a person (40:64, 64:3, 7:11, 3:6).

UMAR

Umar, the son of Khattab was born about twelve years after the birth of the Prophet in Mecca. His father was an educated merchant, who taught his son reading and writing. He was a poet, orator and fond of archery, horse-riding and wrestling. He embraced Islam in the 6th year of the Prophethood.

TAHAJJUD

"The word tahajjud is derived from hujud which means sleep and tahajjud literally signifies the giving up of sleep. The Tahajjud worship is so called because it is offered after one has had some sleep, and sleep is then given up for the sake of worship. It is a midnight worship, which is stated in the Koran to be voluntary: "O thou who hast wrapped up thyself!

TAUBA

The word tauba is derived from ta'b means to come back or return. Thus, tauba basically means return (from sin). The adjective nusuh means sincere, is the companion of the noun tauba. God demands of the believers a "sincere return" (taubatan nusuhan), and He in turn will make them enter paradise (66:8) Once Mu'adh bin Jabal said, "O'Prophet!

UMAYADS

"Muawiya followed Ali and his son, Hasan as caliph of the Muslims, having adopted the cry of "Vengeance for Uthman." Muawiya and Uthman were kinsmen, both of them belonging to the Meccan clan of Umayyad or Abd Shams. Later, after the death of Ali, Hasan bin Ali abdicated the power after ruling for 6 months and 3 days in 41/661 in favour of Muawiya, who became an absolute ruler of the Muslim states. There are however numerous instances, where Muawiya is recorded as saying, "I am the first king of Islam." (Bidaya wa'n Nihaya by Ibn Kathir, Cairo, 1939, 8:135).

WUZU

"The word wuzu is derived from waza, meaning beauty, and in Islamic terminology, it means the washing of certain parts of the body before prayers.

TAHDDI AL-NASL

"Tahddi al-nasl means family planning. Planning is required in everything, be it concrete, sentimental, economical, social or intellectual. God declares in the Koran: "All things have We created after a fixed decree." (54:49) Similarly, the term "family" has a broad and deep meaning. The family is the first brick or unit in the social structure. To build up a family, it requires planning and providence for the number of one's offspring.

TAUZ

"The word tauz is derived from azha (synonym lazha), which appears to have the root meaning of clinging, as of flesh to bones, and hence expresses clinging to someone for refuge from some persons or some cause of fear. Every recitation of the Koran must begin with the formula of refuge, i.e., the isti'adhah which reads: A'uzu bi-llahi min al-shaitani'r-rajim (I seek refuge in God from the stoned Satan). It has been made obligatory through the Koran: "When you recite the Koran, seek refuge in God from Satan, the stoned one" (16:98).

UMMAH

"The word ummah (pl. umam) is derived from amma yaumma, meaning to intend. According to others, the word ummah is rooted from the Aramaic, umma'tha, meaning tribe, nation or community. It occurs 62 times in the Koran including 15 times plural in the following senses:-

YA ALI MADAD

The aslam alaikum was a common phrase of salutation in the period of the Prophet. Imam Hussain once said, "Seventy rewards are the share of the one who initiates a greeting, and only one reward belongs to the one who returns the greeting" (Bihar al-Anwar, 78:120). Soon after the battle of Siffin, the Shi'ite became the target of hostility and were persecuted by the Umayyads. The Imams had no option but to impart them the doctrine of taqiya to avoid the danger of being killed.

TAJ

"The word taj is a Persian loanword in Arabic, which is derived from the old Persian tag, meaning crown. It is said that Dahhak was the first to wear the crown in the world. According to the hadith, "The turbans are the crowns of the Arabs" (al-ama'im tijan al-arab).


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