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TAQI MUHAMMAD (212-225/828-840), 9TH IMAM

"Ahmad bin Abdullah, Muhammad al-Habib, or Abul Hussain, surnamed at-Taqi (God-fearing), also called Imam Taqi Muhammad, was born in 174/790 and ascended in 212/828. He lived secretly with his followers as a merchant at Salamia. He is also called Sahib al-Rasail (Lord of the epistles). He however retained the services of Abdullah bin Maymun (d. 260/874) as his hujjat.

WAFI AHMAD (197-212/813-828), 8TH IMAM

"Abdullah bin Muhammad, surnamed ar-Radi, Nasir or al-Wafi (true to one's word) was also known as ar-Radi Abdullah al-Wafi or Wafi Ahmad, was born in 149/766. The tradition relates that Imam Wafi Ahmad was locally known as attar (druggist) in Nishapur and Salamia, a surname he earned after his profession in drug and medicine as a protection against his real position. He was however represented by his hujjat, Abdullah bin Maymun (d. 260/874).

ZAKAT

The word zakat is derived from zaka, means it (a plant) grew, as it is said zaka al-zar (the crop grew). The other derivatives of this word, as used in the Koran (87:14), carry the sense of purification from sins, i.e., qad aflaha man tazakka (verily the pure ones prospered). According to Raghib, zakat is wealth which is taken from the rich and given to the poor, being so called because it makes wealth grew, or because the giving away of wealth is a source of purification. The word zakat occurs 32 times in the Koran.

TA'ADDUD AL-ZAWJAT (POLYGAMY)

Islam recognizes as a rule only the union of one man and one woman as a valid form of marriage. Under exceptional circumstances, it allows the man more wives than one, but does not allow the woman more husbands than one. Thus while a married woman cannot contract a valid marriage, a married man can do it. There is no difficulty in understanding this differentiation, if the natural duties of man and woman in the preservation and upbringing of human species are kept in view.

TAWHID

The word tawhid, infinitive of the second form of the Arabic verb w-h-d, literally means making one or asserting oneness. Derivations include wahhada means to unite, unify, connect, join, profess; wahdah means oneness, singleness, al-wahid means the One and al-ahad means the singular without number. It is applied theologically to the Oneness (wahdaniya, tawahhud) of God in all its meanings. It is the first and basic brick to believe in Islam, i.e. faith in the Unity of God.

TAQIYA

"The word taqiya is derived from the root tuqat means conceal, hide or arrange for protection. It is also suggested that it is rooted from waqqa means keep from or guard someone. Thus, taqiya means precautionary dissimulation. The Koranic term tauqqat is also taken in the meaning of taqiya, to which divergence of opinions have been advanced. Baidawi (d. 685/1286) writes in his Anwar al-Tanzil that, "The qirah of Imam Yaqub (d.

WAHY

"The word wahy is derived from waha, meaning inspire, reveal, give an idea or impression or hasty suggestion. Wahy originally signifies the making quick sign as wahiyyun means something hasty or quick, mawtun wahiyyun means a quick death, or amrun wahyun means a fast matter. Hence, it signifies the divine words communicated to His prophets.

ZAMANA GALLERY

"The Zamana Gallery, dedicated to presenting arts, architecture and culture of the developing world, particularly the Islamic world, is the first of its kind in the west. It was established by the Present Imam and falls unde the auspices of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture.

TABARRA

The word tabarra is derived from the verb bara'a meaning to be free of someone. Thus, tabarra minhu means he declared himself not to be connected to or implicated with him. According to Lisan al-Arab, the word tabarra means having nothing to do with or disassociate from some one or something. The Koran says, "And those who followed would say: If only we had one more chance, we would clear ourselves of them, as they have cleared themselves of us" (2:167).

TAWIL

"The word tawil is derived from the same root as the word awwal (first), which is also a name of God. The word tawil means to return, to cause to return, to reduce to, to find that to which a thing can be reduced. Since God is the First in relation to all things, many authorities understand the term tawil to signify taking a thing back to the First, demonstrating a thing's relationship with the First, trying things back to God. It is said awallah alaika zalutak means may God cause it to return thee.

TAQWA

The word taqwa (verb ittaqa) is derived from the root waqa meaning he protected himself from that which harms him.

WALIDAN

The terms designating parents in the Koran are walidani and abawani respectively the dual form of walid (father); walida (mother) appears in both the singular and the plural. The term umm and ummahat also designate mother, and the dual form of ab, father. In certain verses the plural aba means ancestors. Natural aspects of parenthood are particularly identified throughout the Koran with maternal functions, pregnancy, giving birth, breastfeeding and weaning (16:78, 39:6, 53:32, 58:2).

TABI'I

The word tabi'i (pl. tabi'un) is derived from its verb, tabi'a or taba'a, meaning he followed. Thus, the tabi'i refers to follower, disciple or adherent. The word is of special significance in tradition, where the name tabi is given to those who came after the Companion (sahaba) of the Prophet. The tabi'un are those of the next generation or contemporaries of the Prophet, who did not know him personally but who knew one of his Companions.

THAL SUFRA

The word thal means plate and sufra means table-cloth. The Arabic word for thal (tray) is tabaq or siniyya (round tray). The word sufra in Persian means anything on or in which victuals are placed, provisions prepared by men of hospitality, such as the sufra'i dauri (a round table-cloth), sufra'i sham'dan (a lamp-dish), sufra'i fasahat (an eloquent tongue) or sufra nishin (a guest of table).

TARAWIH

The word tarawih is the plural of tarwiha, which is derived from raha and means the act of taking rest. It denotes the recitation of the whole Koran in the month of Ramzan. It is the performance of the Sunnis, not Shi'ites during the month of Ramzan. This practice was introduced by caliph Umar.

Children

Children ought to be regarded as a blessing from God and their birth should be celebrated with zest and exchange of greetings. If one has no issues, he must pray for the grant of pious children just as Zachariah prayed for a noble offspring: "God!

TABUK, BATTLE OF

With the conquest of Mecca, Islam marched with galloping speed throughout the length and breath of Arabia. The neighbouring Christian states, especially the Roman empire, were watching this unprecedented, triumphant march with a great concern and anxiety.

TUGHRA

The word tughra is said to be a Persian and the orthography in Arabic characters became fixed as tughra. Popular Arabic has confounded tughra with turra (border of a piece of cloth or the upper border of a document). The word is also considered as of purely Turkish origin, derived from tughragh, meaning seal. In dialects, tughra is pronounced as tura, which means in Turkish, stick or sinew used for playing on a large drum. The tughra is a calligraphic emblem.

TASBIH

"The word tasbih is derived from sbh means to glide or swim. In Aramaic it had long meant to praise. The Arabic writers describe this type of praise as swimming in a shoreless sea: "He praises (yusabbih) in a shoreless sea" (Majmu'atu'l Ahzab, p. 563). The saying of the great phrase subhana

WASILA

The word wasila (pl. wasa'il) is a noun used twice in the Koran (5:34 and 17:57), means recommendation, the means of access, favourable influence or intermediary means. When one approaches a king or a great man, he says tawassalt meaning I approached. It (wasila) only refers to the highest position. The Koran says, "O ye who believe, be mindful of your duty to God, and seek the means (wasila) of approaching Him, and strive in His way in order that you may succeed" (5:35).


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