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ZAMANA GALLERY

"The Zamana Gallery, dedicated to presenting arts, architecture and culture of the developing world, particularly the Islamic world, is the first of its kind in the west. It was established by the Present Imam and falls unde the auspices of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture.

TABUK, BATTLE OF

With the conquest of Mecca, Islam marched with galloping speed throughout the length and breath of Arabia. The neighbouring Christian states, especially the Roman empire, were watching this unprecedented, triumphant march with a great concern and anxiety.

TASBIH

"The word tasbih is derived from sbh means to glide or swim. In Aramaic it had long meant to praise. The Arabic writers describe this type of praise as swimming in a shoreless sea: "He praises (yusabbih) in a shoreless sea" (Majmu'atu'l Ahzab, p. 563). The saying of the great phrase subhana

THAL SUFRA

The word thal means plate and sufra means table-cloth. The Arabic word for thal (tray) is tabaq or siniyya (round tray). The word sufra in Persian means anything on or in which victuals are placed, provisions prepared by men of hospitality, such as the sufra'i dauri (a round table-cloth), sufra'i sham'dan (a lamp-dish), sufra'i fasahat (an eloquent tongue) or sufra nishin (a guest of table).

Children

Children ought to be regarded as a blessing from God and their birth should be celebrated with zest and exchange of greetings. If one has no issues, he must pray for the grant of pious children just as Zachariah prayed for a noble offspring: "God!

TAFSIR

The word tafsir( pl. tafasir) is derived from the verb fassara, meaning to explain, open, unveil or discover something hidden. The emergence of the word tafsir as a technical term is unclear. It occurs once in the Koran (25:33) : "They do not bring to you any similitude, but what We bring to you (is) the truth and better in exposition (wa ahsana tafsiran)." In Islamic terminology, tafsir means an interpretation or commentary of the Koran.

TASWIR

The word taswir is a verbal noun from the second form verb, sawwara means to form, fashion, depict, represent or illustrate. It is the principal term used in Arabic for both the representational arts including painting, drawing, sketching, engraving and photography. It is often synonymous with sura and the rarer taswira or their respective plural forms suwar (82:8) and taswir. The Koranic usage of verb sawwara suggests it had a primary meaning of giving form or shape to a person (40:64, 64:3, 7:11, 3:6).

TUGHRA

The word tughra is said to be a Persian and the orthography in Arabic characters became fixed as tughra. Popular Arabic has confounded tughra with turra (border of a piece of cloth or the upper border of a document). The word is also considered as of purely Turkish origin, derived from tughragh, meaning seal. In dialects, tughra is pronounced as tura, which means in Turkish, stick or sinew used for playing on a large drum. The tughra is a calligraphic emblem.

WASILA

The word wasila (pl. wasa'il) is a noun used twice in the Koran (5:34 and 17:57), means recommendation, the means of access, favourable influence or intermediary means. When one approaches a king or a great man, he says tawassalt meaning I approached. It (wasila) only refers to the highest position. The Koran says, "O ye who believe, be mindful of your duty to God, and seek the means (wasila) of approaching Him, and strive in His way in order that you may succeed" (5:35).

TAHAJJUD

"The word tahajjud is derived from hujud which means sleep and tahajjud literally signifies the giving up of sleep. The Tahajjud worship is so called because it is offered after one has had some sleep, and sleep is then given up for the sake of worship. It is a midnight worship, which is stated in the Koran to be voluntary: "O thou who hast wrapped up thyself!

TAUBA

The word tauba is derived from ta'b means to come back or return. Thus, tauba basically means return (from sin). The adjective nusuh means sincere, is the companion of the noun tauba. God demands of the believers a "sincere return" (taubatan nusuhan), and He in turn will make them enter paradise (66:8) Once Mu'adh bin Jabal said, "O'Prophet!

UHUD, BATTLE OF

"In Mecca, the news of their defeat in Badr preceded the subdued army, and proclaimed their resolve for vengeance. The aggressions of the Meccans reached their climax. The traders among them set aside a portion of their profits for the expenses of war. In 3/625, three thousand Meccan warriors, of whom 700 were clad in armour, bore down on Medina under the command of Abu Sufian. Their women accompanied them in front to applaud the brave and to chide the craven-hearted. Three miles to the north of Medina, the Meccans encamped at the foot of a hillock, called Uhud.

WASWASAH

The Arabic word waswasah (pl. wasawis) means the jingle of an ornament, to speak softly, to speak nonesense, and evil suggestion occurring in heart. In Arabic, the tempting sound is also called waswas.

It must be known that Jibrail (B) brought God's (A) message to the Prophet (C), and this communication is called the wahy. If (A) happens to be not God but Shaitan (devil, demon), then the communication is not called wahy, but waswasah (whispering), vide Koran, 7:19 and 114:5-6.

TAHDDI AL-NASL

"Tahddi al-nasl means family planning. Planning is required in everything, be it concrete, sentimental, economical, social or intellectual. God declares in the Koran: "All things have We created after a fixed decree." (54:49) Similarly, the term "family" has a broad and deep meaning. The family is the first brick or unit in the social structure. To build up a family, it requires planning and providence for the number of one's offspring.

TAUZ

"The word tauz is derived from azha (synonym lazha), which appears to have the root meaning of clinging, as of flesh to bones, and hence expresses clinging to someone for refuge from some persons or some cause of fear. Every recitation of the Koran must begin with the formula of refuge, i.e., the isti'adhah which reads: A'uzu bi-llahi min al-shaitani'r-rajim (I seek refuge in God from the stoned Satan). It has been made obligatory through the Koran: "When you recite the Koran, seek refuge in God from Satan, the stoned one" (16:98).

UMAR

Umar, the son of Khattab was born about twelve years after the birth of the Prophet in Mecca. His father was an educated merchant, who taught his son reading and writing. He was a poet, orator and fond of archery, horse-riding and wrestling. He embraced Islam in the 6th year of the Prophethood.

TAJ

"The word taj is a Persian loanword in Arabic, which is derived from the old Persian tag, meaning crown. It is said that Dahhak was the first to wear the crown in the world. According to the hadith, "The turbans are the crowns of the Arabs" (al-ama'im tijan al-arab).

UMAYADS

"Muawiya followed Ali and his son, Hasan as caliph of the Muslims, having adopted the cry of "Vengeance for Uthman." Muawiya and Uthman were kinsmen, both of them belonging to the Meccan clan of Umayyad or Abd Shams. Later, after the death of Ali, Hasan bin Ali abdicated the power after ruling for 6 months and 3 days in 41/661 in favour of Muawiya, who became an absolute ruler of the Muslim states. There are however numerous instances, where Muawiya is recorded as saying, "I am the first king of Islam." (Bidaya wa'n Nihaya by Ibn Kathir, Cairo, 1939, 8:135).

WUZU

"The word wuzu is derived from waza, meaning beauty, and in Islamic terminology, it means the washing of certain parts of the body before prayers.

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