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TAQIYA

"The word taqiya is derived from the root tuqat means conceal, hide or arrange for protection. It is also suggested that it is rooted from waqqa means keep from or guard someone. Thus, taqiya means precautionary dissimulation. The Koranic term tauqqat is also taken in the meaning of taqiya, to which divergence of opinions have been advanced. Baidawi (d. 685/1286) writes in his Anwar al-Tanzil that, "The qirah of Imam Yaqub (d.

TA'ADDUD AL-ZAWJAT (POLYGAMY)

Islam recognizes as a rule only the union of one man and one woman as a valid form of marriage. Under exceptional circumstances, it allows the man more wives than one, but does not allow the woman more husbands than one. Thus while a married woman cannot contract a valid marriage, a married man can do it. There is no difficulty in understanding this differentiation, if the natural duties of man and woman in the preservation and upbringing of human species are kept in view.

UMAR

Umar, the son of Khattab was born about twelve years after the birth of the Prophet in Mecca. His father was an educated merchant, who taught his son reading and writing. He was a poet, orator and fond of archery, horse-riding and wrestling. He embraced Islam in the 6th year of the Prophethood.

TAQWA

The word taqwa (verb ittaqa) is derived from the root waqa meaning he protected himself from that which harms him.

TABARRA

The word tabarra is derived from the verb bara'a meaning to be free of someone. Thus, tabarra minhu means he declared himself not to be connected to or implicated with him. According to Lisan al-Arab, the word tabarra means having nothing to do with or disassociate from some one or something. The Koran says, "And those who followed would say: If only we had one more chance, we would clear ourselves of them, as they have cleared themselves of us" (2:167).

UMAYADS

"Muawiya followed Ali and his son, Hasan as caliph of the Muslims, having adopted the cry of "Vengeance for Uthman." Muawiya and Uthman were kinsmen, both of them belonging to the Meccan clan of Umayyad or Abd Shams. Later, after the death of Ali, Hasan bin Ali abdicated the power after ruling for 6 months and 3 days in 41/661 in favour of Muawiya, who became an absolute ruler of the Muslim states. There are however numerous instances, where Muawiya is recorded as saying, "I am the first king of Islam." (Bidaya wa'n Nihaya by Ibn Kathir, Cairo, 1939, 8:135).

WUZU

"The word wuzu is derived from waza, meaning beauty, and in Islamic terminology, it means the washing of certain parts of the body before prayers.

TARAWIH

The word tarawih is the plural of tarwiha, which is derived from raha and means the act of taking rest. It denotes the recitation of the whole Koran in the month of Ramzan. It is the performance of the Sunnis, not Shi'ites during the month of Ramzan. This practice was introduced by caliph Umar.

TABI'I

The word tabi'i (pl. tabi'un) is derived from its verb, tabi'a or taba'a, meaning he followed. Thus, the tabi'i refers to follower, disciple or adherent. The word is of special significance in tradition, where the name tabi is given to those who came after the Companion (sahaba) of the Prophet. The tabi'un are those of the next generation or contemporaries of the Prophet, who did not know him personally but who knew one of his Companions.

UMMAH

"The word ummah (pl. umam) is derived from amma yaumma, meaning to intend. According to others, the word ummah is rooted from the Aramaic, umma'tha, meaning tribe, nation or community. It occurs 62 times in the Koran including 15 times plural in the following senses:-

YA ALI MADAD

The aslam alaikum was a common phrase of salutation in the period of the Prophet. Imam Hussain once said, "Seventy rewards are the share of the one who initiates a greeting, and only one reward belongs to the one who returns the greeting" (Bihar al-Anwar, 78:120). Soon after the battle of Siffin, the Shi'ite became the target of hostility and were persecuted by the Umayyads. The Imams had no option but to impart them the doctrine of taqiya to avoid the danger of being killed.

TABUK, BATTLE OF

With the conquest of Mecca, Islam marched with galloping speed throughout the length and breath of Arabia. The neighbouring Christian states, especially the Roman empire, were watching this unprecedented, triumphant march with a great concern and anxiety.

TASBIH

"The word tasbih is derived from sbh means to glide or swim. In Aramaic it had long meant to praise. The Arabic writers describe this type of praise as swimming in a shoreless sea: "He praises (yusabbih) in a shoreless sea" (Majmu'atu'l Ahzab, p. 563). The saying of the great phrase subhana

UMMI

"The word ummi (pl. ummiyun) means unlettered, occurring twice in the Koran as an epithet of the Prophet: "Those who follow the messenger, the ummi Prophet, whom they find written down with the Torah and the Gospels" (7:157); and "Believe then in God, and in His messenger, the ummi Prophet" (7:158).

YAQUB BIN KILLIS

"Yaqub bin Ibn Killis was born in 318/930 in a Jewish family. When he grew young, he came with his father to Egypt and began his political career at the court of Abul Misk Kafur. Very soon, he secured key position because of being intelligent, honest and efficient. He embraced Islam in 357/968. The new vizir Abu Jafar Furat imprisoned him in enmity, but was relieved soon by the intervention of Sharif Muslim al-Hussain. He finally quitted Egypt and entered into the Fatimid services in Maghrib.

TAFSIR

The word tafsir( pl. tafasir) is derived from the verb fassara, meaning to explain, open, unveil or discover something hidden. The emergence of the word tafsir as a technical term is unclear. It occurs once in the Koran (25:33) : "They do not bring to you any similitude, but what We bring to you (is) the truth and better in exposition (wa ahsana tafsiran)." In Islamic terminology, tafsir means an interpretation or commentary of the Koran.

TASWIR

The word taswir is a verbal noun from the second form verb, sawwara means to form, fashion, depict, represent or illustrate. It is the principal term used in Arabic for both the representational arts including painting, drawing, sketching, engraving and photography. It is often synonymous with sura and the rarer taswira or their respective plural forms suwar (82:8) and taswir. The Koranic usage of verb sawwara suggests it had a primary meaning of giving form or shape to a person (40:64, 64:3, 7:11, 3:6).

UMRA

The word umra is derived from amara meaning he inhabited a place or paid a visit to it, and in the terminology of Islam, umra means a visit to the Kaba. The word umra occurs twice in one verse (2:196) in the Koran. It differs from hajj in two respects.

YASMIN, PRINCESS

Prince Aly Salomone Khan's first marriage was actualized on May 18, 1936 with Joan Viscountress Camrose (Princess Tajudawla) in Paris, who became the mother of the Present Imam and Prince Amyn Muhammad. She was divorced, and then Prince Aly S. Khan went to United States on business and there met a film star, Rita Hayworth. They were seen about a good deal together. They came to see Imam Sultan Muhammad Shah at Cannes, who asked them if they were really devoted to each other; they both said that they were, so he advised them to get married as soon as possible. Thus, Prince Aly S.

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