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USHR

The tax on land produce was collected at 10% if the land was watered by a stream or rain. This tax was known as ushr.

YAUM AL-IMAMA

It means the

TALAQ

"The root idea of the verb talaqa means to be freed from a tether (of a camel). Thus, talaq means a camel untethered or a woman repudiated by a man. It also means freeing or the ending of a knot. In the terminology of the jurists, the talaq or divorce is called khul, meaning the putting off or taking off of a thing, when it is claimed by the wife. In the Koran there is one derivation of the root, ikhla, which means take off.

USUL'I DIN & FURU'I DIN

The word usul is the plural of asl, which means a root or a principle, and furu is the plural of far which means a branch. The former is also called aqaid (pl. of aqida, lit. what one is bound to) or belief, and the latter ahkam (pl. of hukm, lit. an order) or the ordinances and regulations of Islam.

YAUM AL-MITHAQ

"The word mithaq is derived from wathiqa meaning to place confidence in someone Thus, mithaq means the covenant, occurring 25 times in the Koran. The Yaum al-mithaq means the day of the covenant or the day of primordial, also called yaum ad-darr, meaning, the day of specks.

TALIKA MUBARAK

The term talik means suspension or hanging together. Talik is said to have got this name from its letters being connected to each other, and is in fact a compound of tawki, rika and naskh scripts. The shikasta talik (broken talik) is the result of writing talik rapidly. The letters are written in a more intricate style, which makes shikasta talik difficult to read. It started to appear in 8th/14th century and was developed by Khwaja Taj Salmaniyi Ispahani (d. 897/1491).

UTHMAN

"Uthman, the son of Affan was born in Mecca in the 6th year of the Elephants. He belonged to the Umayyad tribe. His father was a richest merchant. He was first among the Ummayad to become a Muslim. He also participated in the migration of Abyssinia. He took leading part in serving the cause of Islam and earned the title of Ghani for spending his wealth.

YAUM-I ALI

"The Shi'ite Muslims celebrate every 13h of Rajab as Yaum-i Ali, the birth anniversary of Ali bin Abu Talib. The birth of Ali in the sanctuary of Kaba denotes a herald of the divine guidance to be continued after the Prophet, who had said, "I am the Lord of revelation (tanzil) and Ali is the Lord of tawil (interpretation)." It implies that the inner (batin) aspects of the Koran will be imparted by Ali and his descendants in every age till the day of judgment.

TALIM, DOCTRINE OF

"The early Nizari Ismailis showed a particular interest in the doctrine of the Imamate and concentrated their doctrinal investigations. Thus, Hasan bin Sabbah broached the doctrine of talim (authoritative teaching) to the Ismailis. The word talim is derived from the second form of the root verb alima mean to know. Thus, the talim means instruction or teaching, and the derivative talim has come to be used to denote, in particular, the followers of authoritative, i.e., the Ismailis.

VAKIL

The term vakil was a short form of vakil'i shah (vicegerent of the Lord) or vakil'i mawla (vicegerent of the Imam), and the term vakil'i nafs'i nafis'i humayun (vicegerent of the Imam in both his spiritual and temporal capacities) was used in Iran for the hujjat, or Pir. The word vakil means representative. Ordinarily, the office of the vakil was coined for a responsible person to represent the hujjat or Pir. The Imams appointed the vakils, but some times, the hujjat also appointed with the consent of the Imam.

YERAVADA PALACE

"In 1897, a terrible famine broke out in Bombay and Poona. Imam Sultan Muhammad Shah made not a little distinction of caste or creed while distributing grain, money and clothes during famine. He built a palace in Poona with a view to provide job opportunities and a means of livelihood to the famine stricken people. The site covered an area of 65 acres in the location of Yeravada in Poona. It construction had been made under the care of Lady Aly Shah. It cost over twelve lac rupees. It became known as the Yeravada Palace or the Aga Khan Palace.

TAQI MUHAMMAD (212-225/828-840), 9TH IMAM

"Ahmad bin Abdullah, Muhammad al-Habib, or Abul Hussain, surnamed at-Taqi (God-fearing), also called Imam Taqi Muhammad, was born in 174/790 and ascended in 212/828. He lived secretly with his followers as a merchant at Salamia. He is also called Sahib al-Rasail (Lord of the epistles). He however retained the services of Abdullah bin Maymun (d. 260/874) as his hujjat.

VOLUNTARY SERVICES

"The English word voluntar is borrowed from Latin, voluntary-ius or French, voluntaire means freely undertaken. It is a feeling arising or developing in the mind without external constraint having a purely spontaneous origin or character. Voluntary service refers to a work done with an intention of assisting others without expectation of its reward. Voluntary service is a universal concept and not confined to a specific culture, group or region. It is probably as old as mankind.

YOGA

The Sanskrit word yoga is derived from the root yuj means to bind together, hold fast or yoke, which also governs the Latin iungere and iugum, and the French joug and so on. Yoga signifies a union of the individual soul with the Supreme Spirit. It is an old Indian practice, imparting that the man's bondage results identification of the soul with the body and that his liberation is attained through the knowledge of their separateness.

TA'ADDUD AL-ZAWJAT (POLYGAMY)

Islam recognizes as a rule only the union of one man and one woman as a valid form of marriage. Under exceptional circumstances, it allows the man more wives than one, but does not allow the woman more husbands than one. Thus while a married woman cannot contract a valid marriage, a married man can do it. There is no difficulty in understanding this differentiation, if the natural duties of man and woman in the preservation and upbringing of human species are kept in view.

TAQIYA

"The word taqiya is derived from the root tuqat means conceal, hide or arrange for protection. It is also suggested that it is rooted from waqqa means keep from or guard someone. Thus, taqiya means precautionary dissimulation. The Koranic term tauqqat is also taken in the meaning of taqiya, to which divergence of opinions have been advanced. Baidawi (d. 685/1286) writes in his Anwar al-Tanzil that, "The qirah of Imam Yaqub (d.

WAFI AHMAD (197-212/813-828), 8TH IMAM

"Abdullah bin Muhammad, surnamed ar-Radi, Nasir or al-Wafi (true to one's word) was also known as ar-Radi Abdullah al-Wafi or Wafi Ahmad, was born in 149/766. The tradition relates that Imam Wafi Ahmad was locally known as attar (druggist) in Nishapur and Salamia, a surname he earned after his profession in drug and medicine as a protection against his real position. He was however represented by his hujjat, Abdullah bin Maymun (d. 260/874).

ZAHIR (411-427/1021-1036), 17TH IMAM

"He was born on 20th Ramzan, 395/June 4, 1005. His name was Ali Abul Hasan, or Abu Ma'd, surnamed az-Zahir la-azaz dinallah (Assister in exalting the religion of God). His mother Amina was the daughter of Abdullah, the son of Imam al-Muizz. He acceded on the throne of Fatimid Caliphate and Imamate on 411/1021 at the age of 16 years. On the occasion of his coronation, a special payment in excess (fadl) of 20 dinars was granted to each soldier.

TABARRA

The word tabarra is derived from the verb bara'a meaning to be free of someone. Thus, tabarra minhu means he declared himself not to be connected to or implicated with him. According to Lisan al-Arab, the word tabarra means having nothing to do with or disassociate from some one or something. The Koran says, "And those who followed would say: If only we had one more chance, we would clear ourselves of them, as they have cleared themselves of us" (2:167).

TAQWA

The word taqwa (verb ittaqa) is derived from the root waqa meaning he protected himself from that which harms him.

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