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USUL'I DIN & FURU'I DIN

The word usul is the plural of asl, which means a root or a principle, and furu is the plural of far which means a branch. The former is also called aqaid (pl. of aqida, lit. what one is bound to) or belief, and the latter ahkam (pl. of hukm, lit. an order) or the ordinances and regulations of Islam.

TAQIYA

"The word taqiya is derived from the root tuqat means conceal, hide or arrange for protection. It is also suggested that it is rooted from waqqa means keep from or guard someone. Thus, taqiya means precautionary dissimulation. The Koranic term tauqqat is also taken in the meaning of taqiya, to which divergence of opinions have been advanced. Baidawi (d. 685/1286) writes in his Anwar al-Tanzil that, "The qirah of Imam Yaqub (d.

YAUM AL-MITHAQ

"The word mithaq is derived from wathiqa meaning to place confidence in someone Thus, mithaq means the covenant, occurring 25 times in the Koran. The Yaum al-mithaq means the day of the covenant or the day of primordial, also called yaum ad-darr, meaning, the day of specks.

TABARRA

The word tabarra is derived from the verb bara'a meaning to be free of someone. Thus, tabarra minhu means he declared himself not to be connected to or implicated with him. According to Lisan al-Arab, the word tabarra means having nothing to do with or disassociate from some one or something. The Koran says, "And those who followed would say: If only we had one more chance, we would clear ourselves of them, as they have cleared themselves of us" (2:167).

UTHMAN

"Uthman, the son of Affan was born in Mecca in the 6th year of the Elephants. He belonged to the Umayyad tribe. His father was a richest merchant. He was first among the Ummayad to become a Muslim. He also participated in the migration of Abyssinia. He took leading part in serving the cause of Islam and earned the title of Ghani for spending his wealth.

TAQWA

The word taqwa (verb ittaqa) is derived from the root waqa meaning he protected himself from that which harms him.

YAUM-I ALI

"The Shi'ite Muslims celebrate every 13h of Rajab as Yaum-i Ali, the birth anniversary of Ali bin Abu Talib. The birth of Ali in the sanctuary of Kaba denotes a herald of the divine guidance to be continued after the Prophet, who had said, "I am the Lord of revelation (tanzil) and Ali is the Lord of tawil (interpretation)." It implies that the inner (batin) aspects of the Koran will be imparted by Ali and his descendants in every age till the day of judgment.

YERAVADA PALACE

"In 1897, a terrible famine broke out in Bombay and Poona. Imam Sultan Muhammad Shah made not a little distinction of caste or creed while distributing grain, money and clothes during famine. He built a palace in Poona with a view to provide job opportunities and a means of livelihood to the famine stricken people. The site covered an area of 65 acres in the location of Yeravada in Poona. It construction had been made under the care of Lady Aly Shah. It cost over twelve lac rupees. It became known as the Yeravada Palace or the Aga Khan Palace.

TABI'I

The word tabi'i (pl. tabi'un) is derived from its verb, tabi'a or taba'a, meaning he followed. Thus, the tabi'i refers to follower, disciple or adherent. The word is of special significance in tradition, where the name tabi is given to those who came after the Companion (sahaba) of the Prophet. The tabi'un are those of the next generation or contemporaries of the Prophet, who did not know him personally but who knew one of his Companions.

VAKIL

The term vakil was a short form of vakil'i shah (vicegerent of the Lord) or vakil'i mawla (vicegerent of the Imam), and the term vakil'i nafs'i nafis'i humayun (vicegerent of the Imam in both his spiritual and temporal capacities) was used in Iran for the hujjat, or Pir. The word vakil means representative. Ordinarily, the office of the vakil was coined for a responsible person to represent the hujjat or Pir. The Imams appointed the vakils, but some times, the hujjat also appointed with the consent of the Imam.

TARAWIH

The word tarawih is the plural of tarwiha, which is derived from raha and means the act of taking rest. It denotes the recitation of the whole Koran in the month of Ramzan. It is the performance of the Sunnis, not Shi'ites during the month of Ramzan. This practice was introduced by caliph Umar.

YOGA

The Sanskrit word yoga is derived from the root yuj means to bind together, hold fast or yoke, which also governs the Latin iungere and iugum, and the French joug and so on. Yoga signifies a union of the individual soul with the Supreme Spirit. It is an old Indian practice, imparting that the man's bondage results identification of the soul with the body and that his liberation is attained through the knowledge of their separateness.

TABUK, BATTLE OF

With the conquest of Mecca, Islam marched with galloping speed throughout the length and breath of Arabia. The neighbouring Christian states, especially the Roman empire, were watching this unprecedented, triumphant march with a great concern and anxiety.

VOLUNTARY SERVICES

"The English word voluntar is borrowed from Latin, voluntary-ius or French, voluntaire means freely undertaken. It is a feeling arising or developing in the mind without external constraint having a purely spontaneous origin or character. Voluntary service refers to a work done with an intention of assisting others without expectation of its reward. Voluntary service is a universal concept and not confined to a specific culture, group or region. It is probably as old as mankind.

TASBIH

"The word tasbih is derived from sbh means to glide or swim. In Aramaic it had long meant to praise. The Arabic writers describe this type of praise as swimming in a shoreless sea: "He praises (yusabbih) in a shoreless sea" (Majmu'atu'l Ahzab, p. 563). The saying of the great phrase subhana

ZAHIR (411-427/1021-1036), 17TH IMAM

"He was born on 20th Ramzan, 395/June 4, 1005. His name was Ali Abul Hasan, or Abu Ma'd, surnamed az-Zahir la-azaz dinallah (Assister in exalting the religion of God). His mother Amina was the daughter of Abdullah, the son of Imam al-Muizz. He acceded on the throne of Fatimid Caliphate and Imamate on 411/1021 at the age of 16 years. On the occasion of his coronation, a special payment in excess (fadl) of 20 dinars was granted to each soldier.

TAFSIR

The word tafsir( pl. tafasir) is derived from the verb fassara, meaning to explain, open, unveil or discover something hidden. The emergence of the word tafsir as a technical term is unclear. It occurs once in the Koran (25:33) : "They do not bring to you any similitude, but what We bring to you (is) the truth and better in exposition (wa ahsana tafsiran)." In Islamic terminology, tafsir means an interpretation or commentary of the Koran.

WAFI AHMAD (197-212/813-828), 8TH IMAM

"Abdullah bin Muhammad, surnamed ar-Radi, Nasir or al-Wafi (true to one's word) was also known as ar-Radi Abdullah al-Wafi or Wafi Ahmad, was born in 149/766. The tradition relates that Imam Wafi Ahmad was locally known as attar (druggist) in Nishapur and Salamia, a surname he earned after his profession in drug and medicine as a protection against his real position. He was however represented by his hujjat, Abdullah bin Maymun (d. 260/874).

TASWIR

The word taswir is a verbal noun from the second form verb, sawwara means to form, fashion, depict, represent or illustrate. It is the principal term used in Arabic for both the representational arts including painting, drawing, sketching, engraving and photography. It is often synonymous with sura and the rarer taswira or their respective plural forms suwar (82:8) and taswir. The Koranic usage of verb sawwara suggests it had a primary meaning of giving form or shape to a person (40:64, 64:3, 7:11, 3:6).

ZAKAT

The word zakat is derived from zaka, means it (a plant) grew, as it is said zaka al-zar (the crop grew). The other derivatives of this word, as used in the Koran (87:14), carry the sense of purification from sins, i.e., qad aflaha man tazakka (verily the pure ones prospered). According to Raghib, zakat is wealth which is taken from the rich and given to the poor, being so called because it makes wealth grew, or because the giving away of wealth is a source of purification. The word zakat occurs 32 times in the Koran.


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