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NAW HISAR

It a traditional pilgrimage of the Ismailis to sacred site at the end of village of Dizbad in Iran, where gushes a spring from a rock called Naw Hisar. This pilgrimage takes place every year during a transition period after the summer, but before the harvest of plums, which is an important source of village income. The event also takes place just as the educated members of the jamat return from their holidays, such as the teachers, medical officials and government employees. It implies that the pilgrimage takes place during the time of family reunion and communal gathering.

POET AND POETRY

The word sha'ir occurs four times, as-shura and shi'r once in the Koran. The generic term sharru or precentor in Assyria can be traced in the sha'ir or poet-soothsayer of the Arabs. The Assyrian hymn was the shire, and in it we recognize the Hebrew shir (song) and the Arabic shi'r (poetry). The Psalm of David in Assyrian was the zamaru, which equates with the Hebrew zimrah (song) and mizmor (psalm).

QARMATIANS - The Qarmatians in Bahrain

"The Qarmatians also penetrated into Bahrain by the efforts of Abu Sa'id al-Hasan bin Bahram al-Jannabi, who was born in Jannaba on the coast of Fars. He was trained by Abdan in Kufa, and Hamdan al-Qarmat sent him to Bahrain in 281/894. By 286/899, with the support of the clan of Rabi of Abdul Qafs, Abu Sa'id had brought under submission a large part of Bahrain and also captured Qatif. According to Ibn Hawakal, the leader of the Qarmatians in Bahrain, Abu Sa'id al-Jannabi took the part of Hamdan al-Qarmat and Abdan.

RELIGION, FREEDOM OF

The phrase al-hurriyah al-diniyyah means freedom of religion. One of the manifestations of personal liberty is the freedom of the individual to profess the religion of his or her choice without compulsion. Everyone in the society must have freedom to observe and to practice their faith without fear of, or interference from, others. Freedom of religion in its Islamic context implies that non-Muslims are not forced to convert to Islam, nor are they hindered from practicing their own religious rites.

NAZRANA

"The Arabic word nazr (pl. nazur) means an offering, gift or present, occurring seven times in the Koran. The Persian noun word nazrana means a gift offered especially to a prince to pay respect. Nazrana is a "special gift" in the Ismailis to be presented to the Imam mostly during the mehmani or any occasion to earn best blessings. It is presented individually on behalf of the family as well as collectively on behalf of a jamat or the all jamats of a country.

PREDESTINATION [ see QADR OR TAQDIR ]

PRIDE [ see ISTAKHBARA ]

PROPHET [ see NABI ]

PROSTRATION [see SAJADA ]

QARMATIANS - Decline of the Qarmatians

Meanwhile, Hasan al-A'sam, the son of Ahmad Abu Tahir and a nephew of Abu Tahir, had become the commander of the Qarmatian forces, who was usually selecting to lead the Qarmatians in their military campaigns outside Bahrain. In 357/968, Hasan al-A'sam had taken Damascus after defeating Hasan bin Ubaidullah bin Tughj, the Ikhshidid governor of Syria. The Qarmatians also sacked Ramla and took vast riches and returned to Bahrain.

RELIGION, FREEDOM OF - Freedom within Islamic circle

The word takfir means accusing someone of being a disbeliever, and takfir al-muslim is an attribution of disbelief to a Muslim. The Islamic Shariah forbids the attribution of disbelief, blasphemy or heresy to a Muslim.

PURDAH

In Islam, the women are not forbidden to take part in any social and religious activities, nor is there any injunction in the Koran or the hadith shutting them up within the four walls of their houses.

QARMATIANS - The Ismailis and the Qarmatians

"It must be known that some historians have tried to establish as fact that the Qarmatians and the Ismailis constituted one and the same movement, and some have tried to prove the contrary. Ibn Rizam, an anti-Ismaili pamphleteer of the first half of the fourth/tenth century had wrongly woven stories of the Ismailis and Qarmatians, to which S.M. Stern writes in Studies in Early Ismailism (Jerusalem, 1983, p.

NIKAH

"The Arabic word for marriage is nikah, meaning uniting. The family is the basic social unit in Islamic society, and marriage is the fundamental Islamic institution. The husband and wife are the principals of family formation. Parents are held responsible for the social, cultural and moral growth of children as well as for their physical and health care.

QADI

The word qadi (pl. qudat) means a religious judge administrating the Islamic law. The term qadi al-qudat refers to the highest judiciary officer of the Fatimid state.

QATL AL-NAFS

The word qatl al-nafs means self-murder, denoting suicide in classical Islamic literature. Another word intihar means cutting of the throat is common in modern Arabic speech. There is only one phrase in the Koran relevant to the subject of suicide: "O you who believe! Do not devour your wealth in the wrong way, rather only through trade mutually agreed to, and do not kill yourselves" (4:29). The phrase wa-la taqtulu anfusakum (do not kill yourselves) coincides with the Arabic term for suicide (qatl an-nafs).

NIYYA

"The term niyya does not occur in the Koran. The word ikhlas (sincerity) however is used 17 times in its active participial form, mukhlis, best appropriates the notion of worthy and well directed "intention" (niyya). Sincerity is the foundation of al acts of worship (2:139, 39:2, 11:14), acceptable to God and of all forms of prayer (7:29, 10:22, 29:65, 31:32, 40:14, 65, 98:5).

QADI NOMAN

"Qadi Noman was a renowned Ismaili jurist in the Fatimid court. He espoused Ismaili faith early in life at Kairwan. His association with the Fatimids however began with his entry into the services of Imam al-Mahdi since 313/925. During the period of Imam al-Qaim, he concentrated mainly in the study of history, philosophy and jurisprudence and composed numerous works. Prior to the death of Imam al-Qaim in 334/945, he was appointed as a qadi. His status was further promoted during the time of Imam al-Mansur when he was granted the rank of Chief Qadi (qadi al-qudat).

QIBLA

"The word qibla means direction or point towards which one turns his face for prayer as opposed to dibrah which indicates the direction or point towards which one turns his back. The word qibla occurs four times in the Koran.

REWARD AND PUNISHMENT

The central theme in the Koran is the requital of human deeds by divine justice both in this world and the world to come. For those who do good deeds, God gives him some reward on earth and a far greater reward in the hereafter. Unbelievers and evildoers can be punished on earth and have to undergo eternal chastisement in the hereafter. The ultimate separation of the two groups will take place on the day of judgment.

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