"The Qarmatians also penetrated into Bahrain by the efforts of Abu Sa'id al-Hasan bin Bahram al-Jannabi, who was born in Jannaba on the coast of Fars. He was trained by Abdan in Kufa, and Hamdan al-Qarmat sent him to Bahrain in 281/894. By 286/899, with the support of the clan of Rabi of Abdul Qafs, Abu Sa'id had brought under submission a large part of Bahrain and also captured Qatif. According to Ibn Hawakal, the leader of the Qarmatians in Bahrain, Abu Sa'id al-Jannabi took the part of Hamdan al-Qarmat and Abdan.
The word religion comes from Latin relegere or the French religiun meaning to bind or a state of life bound by holy orders or the pattern of belief. The Arabic word for religion is or milla or din, which is briefly defined as under:
Milla : It means dictate, occuring 15 times in the Koran. It has special reference to the prophet through whom the religion is revealed.
It a traditional pilgrimage of the Ismailis to sacred site at the end of village of Dizbad in Iran, where gushes a spring from a rock called Naw Hisar. This pilgrimage takes place every year during a transition period after the summer, but before the harvest of plums, which is an important source of village income. The event also takes place just as the educated members of the jamat return from their holidays, such as the teachers, medical officials and government employees. It implies that the pilgrimage takes place during the time of family reunion and communal gathering.
PRIDE [ see ISTAKHBARA ]
PROPHET [ see NABI ]
PROSTRATION [see SAJADA ]
Meanwhile, Hasan al-A'sam, the son of Ahmad Abu Tahir and a nephew of Abu Tahir, had become the commander of the Qarmatian forces, who was usually selecting to lead the Qarmatians in their military campaigns outside Bahrain. In 357/968, Hasan al-A'sam had taken Damascus after defeating Hasan bin Ubaidullah bin Tughj, the Ikhshidid governor of Syria. The Qarmatians also sacked Ramla and took vast riches and returned to Bahrain.
The phrase al-hurriyah al-diniyyah means freedom of religion. One of the manifestations of personal liberty is the freedom of the individual to profess the religion of his or her choice without compulsion. Everyone in the society must have freedom to observe and to practice their faith without fear of, or interference from, others. Freedom of religion in its Islamic context implies that non-Muslims are not forced to convert to Islam, nor are they hindered from practicing their own religious rites.
"The Arabic word nazr (pl. nazur) means an offering, gift or present, occurring seven times in the Koran. The Persian noun word nazrana means a gift offered especially to a prince to pay respect. Nazrana is a "special gift" in the Ismailis to be presented to the Imam mostly during the mehmani or any occasion to earn best blessings. It is presented individually on behalf of the family as well as collectively on behalf of a jamat or the all jamats of a country.
In Islam, the women are not forbidden to take part in any social and religious activities, nor is there any injunction in the Koran or the hadith shutting them up within the four walls of their houses.
"It must be known that some historians have tried to establish as fact that the Qarmatians and the Ismailis constituted one and the same movement, and some have tried to prove the contrary. Ibn Rizam, an anti-Ismaili pamphleteer of the first half of the fourth/tenth century had wrongly woven stories of the Ismailis and Qarmatians, to which S.M. Stern writes in Studies in Early Ismailism (Jerusalem, 1983, p.
The word takfir means accusing someone of being a disbeliever, and takfir al-muslim is an attribution of disbelief to a Muslim. The Islamic Shariah forbids the attribution of disbelief, blasphemy or heresy to a Muslim.
The word qadi (pl. qudat) means a religious judge administrating the Islamic law. The term qadi al-qudat refers to the highest judiciary officer of the Fatimid state.
The word qatl al-nafs means self-murder, denoting suicide in classical Islamic literature. Another word intihar means cutting of the throat is common in modern Arabic speech. There is only one phrase in the Koran relevant to the subject of suicide: "O you who believe! Do not devour your wealth in the wrong way, rather only through trade mutually agreed to, and do not kill yourselves" (4:29). The phrase wa-la taqtulu anfusakum (do not kill yourselves) coincides with the Arabic term for suicide (qatl an-nafs).
"The Arabic word for marriage is nikah, meaning uniting. The family is the basic social unit in Islamic society, and marriage is the fundamental Islamic institution. The husband and wife are the principals of family formation. Parents are held responsible for the social, cultural and moral growth of children as well as for their physical and health care.
"Qadi Noman was a renowned Ismaili jurist in the Fatimid court. He espoused Ismaili faith early in life at Kairwan. His association with the Fatimids however began with his entry into the services of Imam al-Mahdi since 313/925. During the period of Imam al-Qaim, he concentrated mainly in the study of history, philosophy and jurisprudence and composed numerous works. Prior to the death of Imam al-Qaim in 334/945, he was appointed as a qadi. His status was further promoted during the time of Imam al-Mansur when he was granted the rank of Chief Qadi (qadi al-qudat).
"The word qibla means direction or point towards which one turns his face for prayer as opposed to dibrah which indicates the direction or point towards which one turns his back. The word qibla occurs four times in the Koran.
"The term niyya does not occur in the Koran. The word ikhlas (sincerity) however is used 17 times in its active participial form, mukhlis, best appropriates the notion of worthy and well directed "intention" (niyya). Sincerity is the foundation of al acts of worship (2:139, 39:2, 11:14), acceptable to God and of all forms of prayer (7:29, 10:22, 29:65, 31:32, 40:14, 65, 98:5).
The word qadr and taqdir are derived from qada. According to Raghib, it means the making manifest of the measure (kamiyya) of a thing, or simply measure. In the words of the same authority, God's taqdir of things is in two ways, by granting qudra (power) or by making them in a particular measure and in a particular manner, as wisdom requires.