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RADI ABDULLAH (225-268/840-881), 10TH IMAM

"Hussain bin Ahmad or Abu Abdullah, surnamed az-Zaki, known as Hussain ar-Radi, or Radi Abdullah (Servant of God who is satisfied and content), was born in 210/825 and assumed the Imamate in 225/840. He is also called Muhammad and al-Muqtada al-Hadi. His also kept his identity secret being represented by his hujjat, Ahmad, surnamed al-Hakim. Tabari (3:2232) refers to his son, al-Mahdi under the name of Ibn al-Basri (the son of Basra), emphasizing the connection of Imam Radi Abdullah with southern Mesopotamia and the adjoining province of Khuzistan.

NURUDDIN ALI (922-957/1516-1550), 38TH IMAM

"His name was Nur-Dahr (the light of the faith), and was also known as Nur-Dahr Khalilullah. His name however in the official list of the Imams appears as Nuruddin Ali. According to another tradition, he was also called Nizar Ali Shah. He mostly resided in Anjudan, and betrothed to a Safavid lady.

QADR OR TAQDIR - God's writing of adversities

Statements are frequently met with in the Koran, in which God is spoken of as having written down the doom of a nation, or a man's term of life, or an affliction. Such verses have also been misconstrued as upholding the doctrine of predestination. The misconception is due to a wrong interpretation of the word kitab, ordinarily carries the significance of writing, but has been freely used in Arabic literature and in the Koran itself in a variety of senses.

RADI ALLAH-O ANHO

The phrase Razi Allah-o anho or Razi Allah-o anha or Razi Allah-o anhum means may God be pleased with him/her/them as the case may be. It is uttered after the the names of the Companions of the Prophet, saints or Pirs.

PANDIYAT-I JAWANMARDI

"The Pandiyat-i Jawanmardi (maxims of fortitude) is a collection of the advices of Imam Mustansir billah (d. 880/1475), which had been compiled in the time of Imam Abdus Salam (d. 899/1493). The word pandiyat is the plural of pand means advice, and jawanmardi means manliness. The term jawanmardi is the Persian translation of fata means young man or brave youth. The Koran (18:10) called the Seven Sleepers fityan (pl. of fata).

QADR OR TAQDIR - God does not lead astray

A very misconception regarding the teachings of the Koran is that it ascribes to God the attributes of leading astray. Nothing could be farther from truth. While al-Hadi, or the One Who guides, is one of the ninety-nine names of God, al-Mudzill, or One Who leads astray, has never been recognized as such. If leading astray were an attribute of God, as guiding certainly is, the name al-Mudzill should have been included in the list of His names, as al-Hadi is.

RAHMAT ULLAH ALAI-HI

The phrase Rahmat-ul-lah alai-hi or Rahmat-ul-lah alai-ha means may God bless him/her.

RAJM [ see HUDUD ]

PANI COMPANY

"Pani company or water-supplying is an institution in the Jamatkhana. It supplies water to the faithful daily and during the festive occasions. The word pani means water and company means assemblege, collection or multitude of things. The Arabic word birka means drinking-place or kafas al-ma means water-cage. The word ma' (pl. miyah or amwah) means water, which occurs over 60 times and river over 50 times in the Koran, while fountains, springs, rain, hail, clouds and winds occur less frequently.

QADR OR TAQDIR - <i>Idzlal</i> as ascribed to God

The mistaken idea that God leads people astray arises out of a misconception of the meaning of the word idzlal when it is ascribed to God. The word idzlal carries a variety of meanings besides leading astray. It should be noted that wherever idzlal is attributed to God, it is only in connection with the transgressors (2:26), the unjust (14:27), and the extravagant (40:34), not the people generally.

RAMDEO

By the end of Rig Vedic period, the fourfold division of society was regarded as fundamental and primeval in India, making its society classified into four castes, i.e., the priest (brahmana), warrior (ksatriya), peasant (vaisya) and serf (sudra). Below the sudra are the people, called untouchable (achhut), outcastes or depressed classes, and sometimes they are called the fifth class (pancama). In Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, there are millions of untouchables, whom Gandhi (1869-1948) called harijan (children of God) in 1920. Dr.

NASKH WA MANSUKH

The word naskh means changing or removing as it is said in Arabic naskhatish shams-azzil meaning the sun removed the shade or nasakhat al-ruhu athar al-qawmi idha adamat meaning the mind obliterated traces of the nation. The word naskh is also used in the law to denote "an order canceling the other order." It appears that once the law given for a people for a particular time must change with the passage and need of time or be improved to pave a way for further progress.

PANJIBHAI

It was an association of brotherhood in the Ismaili community in India. The word panjibhai means a brother shaking hand. The word occurred once in the old prayer of the Ismailis. The term panjibhai became more famous however during the Aga Khan Case of 1866 in India. It was the time when the members of the opposition group were not excommunicated from the community, and they used to attend the Jamatkhana, but did not shake hand with the others at the end of the prayers, or they did not give shah didar to others.

QADR OR TAQDIR - God's sealing of hearts

Another misconception, which must be removed in this connection is that relating to God's setting seals on hearts. The misconception in this case is that it is thought that God has created some men with seals on their hearts, while other have been created with free and open hearts. No trace of any such distinction is met with anywhere either in the Koran or in hadith.

RASHIDUDDIN SINAN

"Abu'l Hasan bin Suleman bin Muhammad, known as Rashiduddin Sinan was born in 528/1133 at Aqr al-Sudan, a village in the district of Basra. He was handsome, of middle height, with dark eyes and acute, learned, eloquent and quick-witted. He was brought up in Basra, where he became a schoolmaster and was converted to Ismailism. Subsequently, he went to Alamut where he was well received, and indoctrinated with Ismailism. He also studied theology, philosophy and the doctrines of philosophers and Ikhwan as-Safa.

NASS

The word nass is derived from nasaba meaning to raise a thing so that it is visible. Thus, nass means designation, referring to the designation of the successor of the Imam. The Imam has his authority to appoint his successor, and it is not from any human electors or from the pledge of ordinary people.

PANJTAN-I PAK

"Panjtan-i Pak (the Blessed Quincunx), Ashbah al-Khmsa (the five shadows) or Ashab al-Kisa (persons of the mantle) is a term coined for the five holy bodies, i.e., the Prophet, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Hussain. They were created out of the substance of Illiyyun (Bihar al-Anwar, 25:10). The Koran (83:18) says, "Nay!

QAIM (322-334/934-946), 12TH IMAM

"He was born in 280/893 in Salamia. His name was Muhammad Nizar, surnamed al-Qaim bi-Amrillah (Firm in the ordinances of God). He married to Umm Habiba, the daughter of his uncle, and ascended in 322/934.

RASIKHUN FI'L ILM

The Koran (3:7) says: "But none knows its interpretation, save only God and those firmly rooted in knowledge (rasikhun fi'l ilm)." Imam Jafar Sadik said, "We are the people obedience to whom God has made obligatory, and we are the rasikhun fi'l ilm" Kitab al-Burhan fi tafsir al-Koran (1:21). According to al-Safi fi tafsir kalam Allah al-wafi (1:21), once Imam Jafar Sadi said, "We are the rasikhun fi'l ilm, and we know the tawil of the Koran."

NATIQ & SAMIT

The word natiq (pl. nutaqa) means speaking and samit means silent one, the successor to a speaker (natiq). For further detail, see IMAM AL-NATIQ

PARABLE

The term parable is derived from the Greek arabolae, which means juxtaposition, the placing of two things or ideas side by side for comparison. In Septuagint, the 3rd century B.C. Greek translation of the Old Testament, the word parable is used as the Greek translation of the Hebrew word mashal. Hence, the Hebrew word mashal and the Greek word parable are broadly used to denote proverbs, allegories, riddles, illustrations and stories: they can refer to any striking speech formulated to stimulate thought.

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