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Banu Hashim

Sectarian References of Political Position of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs in 11th and 12th centuries

Reinterpretation of Quran and hadith, both of which had been mainly seen two basic sources of Islam, was a critical issue of the late 8th century when the last tabiins were died. Esbab-ı nüzul which only could place each verse of Quran in the context of early 6th century of Mecca and Medina gave way to diversified interpretations of Quran in new conquered lands, especially in Zoroastrian culture of Iran and in Hellenistic culture of Near East.

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