A few articles on our Ginanic Treasures.
By Mumtaz Ali Tajddin Sadiq Ali
The word gadi means "time", corresponding with the Koranic term, sa’a. During the Ancient times in India, day and night were measured in gadi instead of hours or minutes. According to the Holy Koran: "They are indeed in loss who give lie to the meeting with God until when the hour (al-sa’a) comes upon them all of a sudden." (6:31) Here, the hour (al-sa’a) stands for the gadi (moment) of death, which is also depicted in the following lines of a ginan:-
Sayan’ji mor’e dar lago ek din’ko
Din’ko re gadi pal’ko
From this gadi, the time showing device evolved into what is known as a watch, a portable mechanical timepiece. In the Indian language, a watch is also called gadi or gadiyal.
The gadi is equal to 22.30 minutes, while the word cho means "four." There are many like words beginning with "cho" (four), such as chokhunn (four corners), chokhu’nt (all around), chogath (four knotted), chogatho (fourfold), chogannu (four times), chogam (four directions), chogdarm (all sides), chogan (all around), etc. Similarly, "chogadiyu’n" means "four gadis." The beating of four drums at every fourth gadi also means chogadia. It clearly suggests that the term chogadiyu’n or chogadia embodies a dual significance: on one hand, it means four gadis; on the other hand, it means four drums.
The lunar calendars, which survive even today, were in use in India, known as the Vikram. It is commonly called Samvat, an abbreviation of Samvatsara. Panchang is the Sanskrit name given to the traditional Indian standard time keeping viz. a calendar is the principal instrument for astrologers to compute astrological calculations. The festivals and ceremonies were regulated according to the lunar day (tithi). A Hindu lunar month consists of 30 lunar days and begins on the day of the full moon or the new moon. A fortnight ending with the full moon (purnimanta) is known as the "bright fortnight" and that ending with the new moon (amanta) is called the "dark fortnight". On the other hand, the Hijrah year of the Muslims, though strictly lunar, has its months adjusted to the course of the moon by means of a cycle of 30 years, containing 19 common years of 354 days, and 11 intercalary years of 355 days. The cycle therefore contains 10,631 days and amounts to 29 Julian years and 39 days. Each year is divided into 12 months containing alternately 30 and 29 days with the exception of the last month of the intercalary years, which invariably contains 30 days. The intercalary years are the 2nd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, 18th, 21st 24th, 26th and 29th of the cycle. No month, however, can contain less than 29 days or more than 30 days. The following are the names of the Hindu and the Muslim months respectively.
11. Zul Qada
12. Zul Hijja
For the division of the day and night into hours, they divided the whole of the day and night in time zones of 8 pahors or pahars (Persian: pas), each pahor being equal to 3 hours of modern time.
The Holy Koran also divides a day (yaum) into eight parts (atrafun, sig. taraf). God says: "And glorify your Lord by the praising of Him before the rising of the sun and before its setting, and during hours of the night do also glorify (Him) and during parts of the day, that you may be well pleased." (20:130) In Arabic and Hebrew, the plural is counted from three, not two, as is common in other languages. Thus, the word "atrafun nahar" and a’anaul lail in the above verse stand for three parts each in a day and night. The combination of both these words denotes six parts. Besides, the word "tulu’i shams" and "gurub’i shams" in the above verse mean one part at dawn and another at dusk. In sum, the atrafun nahar, a’anaul lail, tulu’i shams and gurub’i shams refer to eight parts (pahors) of a day (yaum), each part consisting of three hours (a’an).
Each pahor is divided into 8 gadis, and a gadi is divided into 60 pals. A pal is divided into 30 kshans. The following table will make it easier to understand:
00. 01 second :
00. 75 second :
22. 30 seconds :
22. 30 minutes :
03. 00 hours :
24. 00 hours :
Under this computation, the term "chogadiyu’n" represents a duration of 90 minutes. Clepsydras were regulated to measure the time and ghadiyal or gong to announce the hour to the people in principal towns.
Generally, a day is also divided into 8 parts (not that of pahor), each part contains 1 hour and 30 minutes. The first part starting with the sunrise on that day, and last part ending on sunset on that day approximately for the day times. Similarly, there are 8 parts starting with sunset of current day and ending at sunrise next day.
There are seven types of time periods of which four are considered auspicious, such as amrit (nectar), shubh (luckiest), labh (benefit) and char or chanchal (unstable) and three are inauspicious, viz. rog (disease), kaal (death) and udvegh (fear). These seven kinds of time periods are also known as chogadiyu’n in the Indian society, or the seven moments in a day. These good and bad moments were associated with each day, such as Monday (amrit), Tuesday (udvegh), Wednesday (rog), Thursday (shubh), Friday (labh), Saturday (kaal) and Sunday (char). The auspicious and inauspicious moments were computed in daytime, while all morning hours in a week were considered propitious. The astrologers further claim that works which are undertaken during auspicious moments generally have a positive result and those undertaken during inauspicious moments have a negative result.
The Indians were firm in their conviction that everything in their mundane existence was determined and controlled by the moment of the planets and stars. The stars were not all those which were visible to the naked eye, only 27 or 28, i.e. those which were in the stages of the moon. Horoscopes were widely used to read the omens. It is said that parents asked the astrologers to determine fateful hours for their sons or daughters during the tilaka or magni, that is, betrothal ceremony or a formal recognition when the parties agreed to the wedding of the two children, the future bride and bridegroom. A grand mandapa (a tree-trunk studded with valuable stones and covered with green twigs, surrounded by pillars of sandal-wood and covered with a roof, from which globes of tale were hung, and a scarlet cloth was spread on the floor. Probably a platform was raised under this structure) was constructed in the house of the bride. Wedding wreaths of flowers or festoons of mango leaves were hung before the door. The parents would draw a square on the ground in front of the door, known as door worship (duar puja). The square was also equally divided into 12 parts, indicative of the lunar months. The drummers would sit at the four corners of the square and play the drums at the time propounded by the astrologers. The beat of drums was known as the chogadia. The moment was considered so propitious in the society that the people would start their new business, shift from old to new houses, proceed on travel, preparing and taking medicines, sowing seeds, planting trees, taking and giving loans, etc. on that hour.
The special songs being chanted at the time of chogadiyu’n became known as "chogadia" in the Indian culture.
In ancient time, during the proclamation of the new kingdom, the singers and poets were invited to sing songs to announce the new kingdom of the regions under his sway. From the palace or temple, a trumpet was blown at an interval of four gadis during the day to glorify the new kingdom. The first sound was blown at dawn and the last at dusk. The singing of the songs or blowing of the trumpet was also called the chogadia. Sometimes, the winding shell or horn, known as the shankh in Hindi, surah in Arabic or sped muhra in Persian was blown on the hilltop for this purpose.
The ancient kings built their palaces far from their kingdom. In order to make it known to their subjects that they were the rulers and their kingdom existed, they arranged blowing of the trumpets at dawn and dusk from the palaces. It exercised a media to announce that the kings were alive. Sometimes, the drums (mrdangam) with ankle bells (gejai) were beaten at four corners of the palace, known as char naqara or char dhol.
In religious context, the broadcast of similar significance after every four gadis twice a day as reaffirmation of Spiritual Kingdom of the Imam on earth, seems to have sprang as the paramount importance and absolute necessity in the Indian Ismailis.
What measures had been taken to make the followers in India know from time to time that their Imam of the Time physically resided in Iran? The Pirs or Hujjats played intermediary role in this context, who regularly mentioned the names of the Imams, which is clearly sounded in the ginans. After the death of Pir Tajddin in 1467, the office of the Pir vested in "Pir Pandiyat-e-Jawanmardi", a book of the farmans of Imam Mustansir billah (1463-1475), which was a silent Pir, not a speaking one. The "Satvenni’ji Vel" (compiled between 1516 and 1520) by Sayed Nur Muhammad Shah (d. 1534) played a vital role, which contains the names of 38 Imams. Henceforward, the vakils or Imam’s representative were the next intermediators through which the followers could know the Imam of the Time and recited his name in their daily prayers to update the genealogical list of the Imams. The vakils were not regular to visit every village and their mission was confined to a particular region. It also appears that the poor means of communication was responsible for having no regular coordination among the Indian vakils. Nonetheless, there was a general trend that in the absence of the name of the Imam of the Time, the Ismailis would recite the word "Nur Shah" (Lord of the Light) in their daily prayers and the ginans.
For further illustration, we will quote a few lines of "Eji, savant chaud’so ne bavan, an’e ashad’nu re ma’s"- a ginan of Pir Hasan Kabiruddin as under:-
11) Islam Shah arrived and enthroned in Kahek during the month of Ramzan on 1452 Samvat (or 1396 A.D.)
12) Abuzar Ali drew his descent from this lineage and rose as an Imam. He came in the village of Vircha and graced the throne of Imamate.
13) Zulfikar Ali descended and ascended as an Imam. It must be called the descent of Abuzar Ali, the progeny of Hussain.
14) The Lord arrived in Vircha on the 22nd day of the month of Falgoon, 1572 Samvat (or 1516 A.D.)
15) On that day the Imam arrived and settled down in that place. He, the Nur Shah acceded the throne, and that as an Imam after arrival.
Imam Islam Shah (1370-1423) was followed by Muhammad bin Islam Shah (1423-1463), Mustansir billah (1463-1475), Abdus Salam (1475-1493), Gharib Mirza (1493-1496), Abuzar Ali (1496-1509), Murad Mirza (1509-1514), Zulfikar Ali (1514-1516), Nuruddin Ali (1516-1550), Khalilullah Ali (1550-1585), Nizar (1585-1826) and so forth.
The general picture which emerges from these accounts is that the scribe had updated the above ginan, but did not know the names of the Imams after Imam Islam Shah, and wrote the name of Imam Abuzar Ali, who was known to him, omitting the names of Muhammad bin Islam Shah, Mustansir billah, Abdus Salam and Gharib Mirza. He then mentioned the name of Imam Zulfikar Ali, omitting the name of Murad Mirza. Lastly, it also infers that he did not know the name of the Imam of his own period, whom he referred to as the Nur Shah (Lord of the Light). It is a sharp evidence to judge that there was no explicit media to know the names of the Imam exactly in time. The most obvious inference from this account reveals that till the time of Imam Nuruddin, the average Ismailis in India were known with the names of the Imams. Then, the name of Imam Khalilullah (1550-1585) was introduced by Pir Dadu (1474-1596) in India. Then, the name of Imam Nizar (1585-1628) spread through a ginan by Sayed Abdul Nabi. But the periods of Imam Sayed Ali (1628-1660), Imam Hasan Ali (1660-1694) and Imam Kassim Ali (1694-1730) were such that the Ismailis continued their religious practices, keeping a faith in minds that an Imam on every age resided on earth. On this juncture, not possible to determine conclusively, the climate was benign and that the term "chogadia" for specific ginans acquired a religious significance for the Ismailis.
There was a major complexity involved in the process as the beat of drum or blow of horn was never recommended in the community. Needless to write that when any vakil or Imam’s representative would come from Iran, he was greeted in the villages, but no beating of drums or blowing of winding shell was ever operated upon his arrival. The general practice of drumming was therefore not assumed, but counteracted by an appropriate rite, i.e. the recitation of the chogadia ginans.
It is also said that the followers were foretold that the Imam would arrive on the soil of India, and as such the beat of drums was reserved for the fateful occasion of the Imam’s arrival, and not on any other occasion. Thus, the words dhol, dhadhama, tambal and nagara for small and big drums have been applied in the extant chogadia ginans as under:-
a) "The dol will be beaten upon the arrival of Aga Mahdi, the Lord. The dhol and dhadama will swing with the Lord’s flags."
b) "The tambal and nagara will be played when the Lord shall arrive from the west."
c) "The majestic Lord will mount a chariot. Ali as the Sultan of India will come. The armies in a little distance will pour down with the beat of tambal and flags."
The nature of the extant materials afford very little rope to one who grapples with this subject, thus we have no textual evidence to elucidate who devised the practice of the chogadia? It is most likely that the older religious specialists within the community seem to have made the selection at their liberty between 1628 and 1730. In fact, the chogadia ginans had slowly developed through a natural process of social growth of the community and integrated into Islamic life in Ismailism.
Later on, Sayed Fateh Ali Shah introduced through his ginans the names of Imam Abul Hasan Ali (1730-1792), and Imam Khalilullah Ali (1792-1817) who resided in Shahr-i-Babak in Iran. Nevertheless, the recitation of chogadia ginan mingled with the tradition of the ginans.
In view of the accessible information, we have discussed that the word chogadia embodied a dual meaning, viz. four auspicious hours and four drums. When Imam Hasan Ali Shah made his gracious footing on the Indian soil, the Ismailis came to realize that they enjoyed every auspicious hour. In other words, the Imam’s presence became barkat for them, which froze the old concept of auspicious hour in specific time in gradual process. Besides, the use of the drums on Imam’s arrival paved a way to the birth of the Ismaili Band in 1926 at Bombay, and the famous words of Pir Sadruddin gushed out on every lip that, "Sami Rajo a’av’e jangi dhol vagad’e" (The bigger drum will be beaten upon the arrival of the Imam). In sum, the arrival of the Imam virtually accomplished the very purpose of the chogadia in a natural process. Despite the fact that its real substance has been accomplished, its practice is still alive. Does it mean that the chogadia ginans eclipsed or faded the significance?
In the present age, the media is faster than past, even then the old culture of chogadia has been retained. Why? For illustration, the watch or timepiece device had not been invented in Holy Prophet’s period, and there was no explicit method to measure the timing for the prayer. Bukhari (10:1,2) tells us that when the Muslims came to Medina, they used to have a time appointed for prayer, at which they all gathered together. A consultation was held at which suggestions for ringing a bell or blowing a horn were rejected. It was finally proposed to appoint a man who should call out for prayer, at which the Holy Prophet ordered Bilal to call out for prayers in the words of adhan (call to prayer) as we now see it. In the present age, the watch is a landmark device to calculate accurate hour, minute and second; nevertheless, the practice of adhan has been retained. With the invention of a clock, the scales turned however in favour of the Arab tradition. In the same manner, the recitation of the chogadia is prevalent in the community.
The chogadia ginans are rich in symbolism drawn from the spiritual and cultural milieu of the India subcontinent. It played a vital role in its early stage. It had grown a strong feeling of brotherhood and a measure of harmony in the community. It reflects an old cultural image of the Indian Ismailis.
While inspecting the manuscripts of the ginans, it appears that the scribes gave headings to few special ginans, such as the ginans of abadu (9), jugesar (52), a’arati (2), gatpat in sitting posture (5), gatpat in standing posture (17), subu sadik (16), talika mubarak (2), akhirat (6), ruhaniat (4), venti (6), chogadia (28), and one each recited during Eid-i Millad, Navroz and Salgirah, etc.
It is learnt from the old manuscripts that the chogadia ginans of Sind were not recited in other places, and it equally occurred in Gujrat and Kutchh. It seems fairly certain that Mukhi Laljibhai Devraj (1842-1930), the Father of Ismaili Journalism in India, established the first Sindhi Printing Press at Palkhi Mola, Bombay on June 27, 1903. He laboured to collect old manuscripts in India for printing purpose. In his formative exploration, he unearthed 21 ginans under the heading of chogadia. He sorted out and got them printed. Soon afterwards, another 7 chogadia were unearthed, reaching the figure of 28 chogadia, which is now at our disposal. In other words, 11 chogadia ginans in Gujrat, 8 in Kutchh, 5 in Sind and 4 in Kathiawar were discovered and printed. At any rate, it is evident that the tradition of chogadia ginans never penetrated in Punjab, where it was borrowed most possibly in much later period.
Chogadia Ginans & Timings:
Recitation twice a week:-
a) Sunday.....day....before sunrise...... 45 minutes
Monday........night....after sunset........45 minutes
b) Thursday.....day....before sunrise...... 45 minutes
Friday........night.....after sunset.........45 minutes
Recitation daily in a week:- (morning)
Detail of the Chogadia Ginans:
23 chogadia ginans for morning.
04 chogadia ginans for evening.
01 chogadia ginan for evening & morning.
In sum, the following 23 chogadia belong to Pir Sadruddin:-
1.Jug’men phir’e shah’ji muneri
2. Aashaji sacho tu’n alakh nirinjan
3. Jirebhai namo te shah nur’ke
4. Jirebhai qaim aya shahji’u
5. Bhai tini vire’en jiun umedu’n
6. Sri’e sarandhar aasha tribhovar
7. Ashasji tri tri lok dhar Ali hek vado sami
8. A’ai’n kario moman man dhirar’re
9. sirevo sirevo momano, Ali hek vado sami
10. Pindat te je eh kisi ghar na jata
11. Divada batti mahe’n jiyu’n ten samarann
12. Jenn’e gati’e shah’kh’e khad’e umayo
13. Hanspuri nagari mahe’n mandavo rachayo
14. Tariye’n tu’n taranhar khudavand
15. Eji tuhi’n gur tuhi’n nar tuhi’n abhi asha
16. Khela var’nu shah moro rath chadash’e
17. Dhul dhul god’e sacho sami rajo chadash’e
18. Eji dhul dhul god’e Ali chadash’e shah
19. Ho jiyo jirebhai jisar’e gur’ku’n
20. Ho jiyo jirebhai moro man hasti hasti
21. Yara anant kirodi’e vadhai’un
22. Eh jiyo aayo aayo hans’e jo var raja
23. Gat lokaji’e umayo
There are following 3 chogadia to the credit of Pir Hasan Kabiruddin:-
1. Kalpat jalpat maya eh mohi
2. Moman man em jan’jeji
3. Nar pachham’thi chadengo
Pir Saheb al-Din’s one chogadia is Pahelo pahelo naam’ji eh khudaji’ko lej’e and one by Pir Tajddi, i.e., Jirebhai dahi gur’ke vacha.
23 chogadia by Pir Sadruddin
03 chogadia by Pir Hasan Kabiruddin
01 chogadia by Pir Saheb al-Din
01 chogadia by Pir Tajddin
It is also a significant that the recitation of chogadia at evening is followed by the tasbih. In some places, the Mukhi recites the tasbih, but in others the reciter himself/herself recites the tasbih. Thus, the evening chogadia has remained very distinct, while the tendency of the morning chogadia is being melted away as if it were insignificant.
Ginans are written by Pirs.
Farmans are given by Pirs or by Imams
The Imam has said that Ginans and Farmans are one and the Same.
Pir has often written in Ginans that these contain renderings of the Farmans of the Imam.
Pir has often written in Ginans that these contain a summary of the Holy Quran.
Both Ginans and Farmans are to be treasured, shared, kept in our hearts and followed everyday.
Access to Ginans and Farmans are absolutely necessary in a mureed's life as this is described as the only true path to Salvation for Ismailis.
Currently, according to Mowlana Sultan Muhammad shah's Will, Imam Noor Mowlana Shah Karim is both the Imam and the Pir of all Nizari Ismailis.
Some relevant extracts and sample gists are given below. Readers are encouraged to use this as a stepping stone to find and study more ginans on the subject and to compare different translations.
Anant Akhado - Story of a Historic Mehmani presentation of written renderings of Farmans 600 years ago
Since there is a unique light of Imamat (Noor) that is passed on to the Imams, then each Imam is aware of the actions of His predecessors. There is a very famous piece of Ismaili Sacred Literature going back 600 years of which extracts are recited every day in every Jamatkhana of the Indian ismaili Tradition, and whose text is also sold in Jamatkhanas: The Anant Akhado.
This piece of widely accepted ismaili sacred literature gives the detailed account of a Mehmani submitted around 600 years ago in which a piece of literature was offered to the Imam of that Time (Islam Shah) in a Short Mehmani.
This piece of Literature was the Anant Akhado written by Hassan Kabirdin as an individual effort, it reiterated many fundamental tenets and beliefs of the Ismaili Faith and was presented as being a rendering of the Farmans of the Imam, it was written on the cloth of a turban, and the mehmani was offered by its author in the form of a turban, not of a mere cloth. In a few instants, the Imam accepted the Mehmani offering and gave it back to Hassan Kabirdin.
As a result, Hassan Kabirdin considered the gift returned for sharing among ismailis. It is afterwards that Hassan Kabirdin got the official title of Pir. Pir Hassan Kabirdin updated the text to include an account of the Mehmani event, and widely circulated his text. To date, there are many manuscripts showing that the work was copied and kept by ismailis in their homes, and to date, this text is preserved and recited daily in Jamatkhanas before the evening prayer.
Anant Akhado Extracts
Transliterated from a book available for sale at the literature counter in Jamatkhanas:
Aashaajee Sree Islam Shah takhat-j bettha
tyaare deen huaa rahemaan jee
seerbandh lai Gur ne mustak deedha
tyaare seer naagaa karee narjee betthaa.Haree anant...45
Oh Lord When Sree Islam Shah sat on the takhat(throne)
then mercy descended upon us
He took the Turban(from His feet) and placed it on His head
He then sat with his head uncovered
God You are eternal...
Aashaajee Nav chhugaa nee paagaj baandhee
seerbandh baandheeyo Sultaan jee
paanchso gaj nav chhugaaj huaa
huaa se puraa pareeyaann................Haree anant...48
Oh Lord He put on me the Turban of nine tussles
The Sultan (King) put it me on Himself
The nine tussles(together with the turban) constituted five hundred gajes
and the heavenly plan was completed
God You are eternal...
Aashaajee Chh maas lag-nn tap-j keedhaa
teeyaan lag-nn paagh banaay jee
gaj gaj pramaanne safaayat lakhyaa
lakhyaa te shaah-ne Farmaan.............Haree anant..211
Oh Lord During six months of Prayers and Meditation,
I made the turban
On it I inscribed the Truth inch by inch
I inscribed the Holy Farmaan
God You are eternal... 211
Aashaajee Tame hee maataa tame hee peetaa
tame hee moraa Saamee jee
seerbandh tame baandho moraa Saamee
anant-ko bhaar utthaaye.................Haree anant..499
Oh Lord You are my mother and You are my father
and You are my Lord
Wear theTurban my Lord
and lift the eternal burden from me
God You are eternal...
Aashaajee Abhallaa naaree nee tame laaj rakh-jo
tame chho kanth sujaañn-jee,
Nauv chhoogaa nee paagddee laavyaa
te naaree tamaaree neervaañn............Haree anant....6
Oh Lord Retain the honour of your servant
You are the all-knowing
The turban of nine tussles has been brought (to You)
and it has been brought by your devoted servant
God You are eternal...
Aashaajee Nauv chhoogaa nee Shaah paag-j baandho
veenve ubhee ghar nee naar-jee,
Añnat te maanhe vañnyo hato
te deedho Hassan Shaah ne saar..........Haree anant...10
Oh Lord put on the entire Turban of nine tussles
The servant stood pleading
The eternal gist was folded inside it
The (Imam, the Lord) granted it to Hassan Shah
God You are eternal...
Our First Duty is to Obey the Farmans - this is why each Ismaili needs access to them.
PAHELE PAALLO TE SATGURNEE VAACHAA
Author: Satgur Nur
Source: bhg5-032 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
ejee pahele paallo te satguru nee vaachaa
beeje chaalo hakk ne saachaa
treeje ta(n)tav paamsho - viraabhaai paamsho...............1
Ginans are full of the divine Light (Noor). Without this Divine Light of knowledge, Jamats will perish
GEENAAN BOLO RE NEET NOORE BHARIYAA
Author: Pir Sadardin
Source: bhg4-093 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
ejee geenaan bolo re neet Noore bhariyaa
evo haidde tamaare harakh na maye ji.........................1
O momins: Recite the 'Geenaans' everyday as they are full of Light.
This will generate such joy and happiness that cannot be contained in your hearts.
ejee tamboli veenaa vannase paa(n)daddaa
tem gur bhirmaa veenaa vannase jamaat ji.....................7
O momins: As the leaves rot without the care of a gardner , in the same
manner the jamaats will perish without the Prophetic Light (the Peer, the Creator).
The True Guide speaks the Words of the Divine Light, Read them.
Author: Pir Sat Gur Noor
Source: bhg1-091 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
Title: Jire viraa Sat panth sat-e jiliyen
Jire viraa Sat Gur Noor-e shaashtr saambharaaviyaa
tame vaanchi lejo sohi
damo dam srevo saami aapnno
to saaheb khushiyaal-j hoy 40
Read Ginan, those who do not Follow Farmans, or don't access Farmans have no path to Salvation
Author: Pir Shams
Source: bgh6-035 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
Eji Farmaan amaaro je na maanse,
vali nahi maanse vaat;
te tthaam kiaae nahi paamse,
nahi malse Gur-Nar ne saath 2
READ knowledge of Ginans and Farmans and Holy Books, Pir and Imam are the same.
Author: Pir Sadardin
Source: bhg5-066 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
Hojire viraa jem aakaase suraj chhe,
ane chaud lokmaan prakaas;
tem ghatt ghatt saami raajo vasi rahiyo,
hun jiaan jowu tiaa paas 2
Hojire viraa Satgur saache mane sireviye,
ane saacho raakhone imaan;
Gurnu Farmaan saachun kari jaannajo,
tame vaanchi juvone ginaan 3
Hojire viraa Gur kahe Gur Nar ek chhe,
ane Gur Nar ekhi jaann;
Pir Sadardin boliyaa,
vaanchi juvone ved puraann 7
Kalam-e-Mowla says, Announce My Words to All
Kalam-e-Mowla, The Words of the First Imam, Hazrat Ali, Sung in Jamatkhanas as a Ginan - ~328 verses of knowledge for ismailis to follow.:
"Kalam-i Mawla, i.e., the sayings of Imam Ali bin Abu Talib, is a poetical work of 328 verses, composed in Hindi. It is a manual of ethics for believer, stating the virtues to be cultivated and the vices to be shunned. It is recited in the Jamatkhana. It is to be noted that its few stanzas were also presented in the court during the Aga Khan Case of 1866." Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin
sab cheejku(n) ek maratabaa kaamal hae, jeesku(n) kahee-e puraa Noor;;
eelam maratabaa puraa tab hove, jab haleemeekaa upar barase Noor;
alamku(n) jo haleemee aaee, to usakaa elam huaa tamaam;
ke jo puchhe use yehee deen bataave, haleemee beenaa na hove kaam.........105
All things have a state of accomplishment which we recognise as such. Knowledge attains perfection when Light shines upon a humble scholar. When a learned man ('alim) becomes humble, his learning is completed. He answers questions(without arrogance) and teaches this religion to those who ask him. There is no success without humility.
khatam keeyaa ees kalaamku(n) sab jaaher kahe sunaayaa;
so paddo sheekho or suno sunaa-o, yu(n) maulaane hukam Farmaayaa;
chaar tareeke hay eesame(n) jaaher, jo samaje so hove kaamal;
har ek harafme(n) hay hak shanaasee, pann paave so jo hove aamal........322
I have completed these sayings(Kalaam / Words), and have announced them to all. Then read them, learn them, listen to them and announce them, this is the command (Farman) of the Lord. Four paths(Tariqas) are encompassed in it, those who understand it become perfect. Each word contains means to Divine realisation, but it is only those who follow them who attain it.
Obedience of Farmans is the only way to Salvation
12) Eji Lakh chorashi to chutiae,
Jo rahiae aapna Satguru ke Farman mahain,
Daso(n)d dije Satguru mukhe,
To vaso howe amrapuri mahain. Cheto....
12. The only way to overcome this evolvement of 84 lakh times is
by obeying Satgur's Farman, and giving Dasond to Satgur.
Verily this will ensure your place in Heaven (Amrapuri).
God the Creator obeys the Farman of the Noor Vishnu (Imam) which is the aspect of God beyond attributes
21) Eji Anat kalap aewa wahi gaya ,
Pache aaviya te char kalap tya(n)y,
Te mahaina tran kalap vartiya,
Brahmaji ne Farmane rahya tya(n)y Cheto......
21. Thus many eras (Kalaps) have passed and the four Kalaps have
passed and the four Kalaps finally prevailed,
of which three have already passed and in the
past three, Brahma was obeying Vishnu's Firman.
Obedience of Farmans leads to Prosperity and Salvation
139) Eji Have ame tamne azad kariya
Tame jao te pase sardar
Tene Farmane tame chaljo
To pamsho moksh mugat didar Cheto.....
139. Hazrat Ali said, "I release you to be with your family, but follow My
Farmans and you will achieve salvation."
143) Eji Ali te allah kari manjo
Pir te Nabi Mohammed sardar
Amare Farmane tame chaljo
To tamara vadhshe putra ne parivar Cheto....
143. Acknowledge Ali as Allah and Pir is on the same footing as the Nabi.
Thus follow our Farmans
that will ensure that you and your family will flourish.
Prophet Muhammad taught the Farmans of the Imam to the servants who then prospered.
155) Eji Satguru Nabi ji Ali ji ne Farmane dharm aalio
Teno vadhio te ridhi sidhi ne parivar
Tena balak jare opje tare
Parvat thi hethe mele saar Cheto....
155. Nabi introduced them to Satpanth according to the Farmans of Ali; they had success in their material
and spiritual worlds and their families flourished.
Farmans Lead to Salvation, Questioning (editing) Farmans is not allowed.
165) Eji Tene Farmane je jiv chalshe
Te jiv pamshe moksh didar
Chara charbat je jiv shikhashe
Te to jashe narak dwar Cheto...
165. Those Momins who will obey Imam's Farmans will achieve Noorani Didar.
Those who will question the
Farmans and think themselves cleverer will not achieve salvation.
192) Eji Aevoo janine chaljo rikhisaro
Aagal chhe dohela paar
Te satguru saheb jugajuge aaviya
Teni vaani thi saho koie otarya paar Cheto....
192. Beware Momins, the path ahead of you is difficult but Satguru has
come in each era to guide you, so listen to His Word / Farman if you want salvation.
193) Eji Anant kalap aage vahi gaya
Bija jug non nahi koie shomar
Te mahain je jiv satgur Farmane chaliya
Te jaie pota svarag duar Cheto....
193. Countless eras have passed and I have no words to describe the second
Joog, but those who obeyed
Farmans they have achieved salvation.
Farmans of Pir and of Imam
195) Eji Aad nirinjan Ali kahiae
Satguru brahma Nabi Mohammad no avtar
Tene Farmane je jiv chalshe
Te jiv otarshe pele paar Cheto....
195. The present Lord is Ali and Muhammed is His messenger, just as Brahma
was to Niranjan. So obey their Farmans to achieve salvation.
360) Eji Satguruna vayke te sudha chaljo
Dejo satgur mukhe dasond no aohar
Chaliso te pir mukhe aapjo
Ane karjo te sukrit aapar Cheto..
360. If you remain true to Pir's words, pay Dasond from your earnings
and the one- fortieth of your earning should go to the Pir.
Hazar Imam is the current manifestation of Noor of Allah
362) Eji Tene hajar jomo dekhariyo
Shah kasim no avtar
Aene te allah karine manjo
Tema shak ma aanjo lagaar
362. Thus Pir introduced the townsfolk to Hazar Imam, Shah Qasim Shah, and
taught them to accept Him as Allah and not to doubt that..
Farmans are to be obeyed, Pir obeys Imam
396) Eji Tare Farman laine satgur ji chaliya
Tene vani kidhi is jug minjar
Teto Farmani banda Sri Islamshah tana
Tene chatris karor bodhiya duniya minjar Cheto....
396. Upon His Farman Pir came to you in this present era - for Shri Islam
Shah's Farman is command -
and 36 Karor souls were shown the right path by Pir.
399) Eji Je satgur no tame dharm lidho
Te satgur ni vaninoon karjo vichar
Te satgur ne ame aek chaiye
Aapana sahona mowla che sirjanhaar Cheto...
399. The Satgur from whom you have learnt about this religion, pay heed to
what he has to say and I am none
other than that Satgur and verily our Lord is the maintainer of all beings.
400) Eji Je narni sreva ame tam ne batavi
Je chhe amaro tamaor sirjanhaar
Te nar naklanki Sri Islamshah
Tenoon thank che aerak khand minjar Cheto....
400. The Lord whose service that I have shown you is the maintainer of all
beings and He is Shri Islam Shah, who now resides in Iraq .
401) Eji Aere aasan narji tana
Ane satgur ji betha te jampu dip minjar
Tene Farmane chaljo momino
Haq kamai karjo saar Cheto....
401. Momins, sit in His prayers and I have dedicated my life in India in
His prayer; follow His Farmans and earn an honest living.
On Prophet Muhammad's Night of Enlightenment, it was Ali, the Imam who spoke to Him, The Imam's words are referred as a Farman, and they contained instructions for the Prophet to follow. Divinity of Imam is reaffirmed. The Prophet obeyed the Farman.
101) Eji Nabi Mohammed sat brahma kahiae
Tena farzand bibi Fatima saar
Tare Nabi Mohammed chinta upani
Aeno kon te thashe bharthar Cheto.....
101. Nabi Muhammed is the right Brahma and his daughter is Bibi Fatima.
This worried the Prophet - who would marry his daughter?
102) Eji Nabi Mohammed ne shahe maeraj te raviaa
Tyan dithi te kudrat aapar
Tare Farman aaviyo Ali janab thi
Tame chinta ma karo lagaar Cheto....
102. When Prophet was called on (experienced) Meraj, he saw many wonderful
things and Hazrat Ali made a Farman to him not to worry.
103) Eji Tam ghar farzand bibi Fatima
Teno am pase che bharthar
Te kul tamari mahain avtariya
Te Abu Talib ne gher avtar Cheto....
103. I have chosen a husband for your daughter, Bibi Fatima, who has come
to you through Abu Talib's lineage.
104) Eji Te roop amaroon jaanjo
Te Mowla Murtaza Ali avtar
Ali allah aek kari jaanjo
Te mahain shak ma aanjo lagaar Cheto....
104. Know My form, for though I am manifest in Murtaza Ali, I am the
Creator and do not doubt that.
105) Eji Jyare aevo Farman aaviyo hazar thi
Tare Nabi Mohammed ne aaviyo aetbaar
Tyan dithi kudrat kadar tani
Boliya Nabi Mohammed teni var Cheto.....
105. When the Prophet heard this at Meraj, he gained faith and he saw
106) Eji Tare araj kidhi Ali janab ma
Tame sambaro parvardigar
Ali allah aek farmaviya
Teno te koon karshe aetbaar Cheto....
106. He requested Hazrat Ali saying, "How will I convince my fellow human
beings that you are God Manifest?"
107) Eji Tare dargah mathi Farman aaviyo
Tame sambaro Mohammed mora piyar
Tam ghar farzand bibi Fatima
Teno Ali che bharthar Cheto.....
107. The Farman from the Heaven to the Prophet was: "O My beloved Prophet,
marry your daughter to Hazrat Ali."
108) Eji Tam ghar farzand nar che
Am ghar farzand the bharthar
Tame Mohammed ame jallshanho
Aapan donoon no ay che vahevar Cheto.....
108. You have a daughter and I have the husband for her. You are Muhammed
and I am "Jal Shahnur"(Creator). Together we will carry on the mission.
109) Eji Jyare ae farzand mota thashe
Tyare karshoon te duniaanoon aachar
Ame tame donoon aek chiae
Tenoon koie na karsho vichar Cheto......
109. When your daughter will grow older I will create the circumstance for
her to marry Ali for indeed you are
from My Noor, so don't worry about the future.
110) Eji Bibi Fatima voravajo
Te Hazrat Ali gher nar
Tene tame tyan aaljo
Dejo dej mahain khawja char Cheto.....
110. Marry Bibi Fatima to Hazrat Ali in the dowry give her four servants.
111) Eji Te khawja raheshe hazoor main
Te upare bibi Fatima dharshe piyar
Teni dua ae tito vijshe
Tena thashe baho parivar Cheto....
111. These servants will stay with her and will respect and love Bibi
Fatima and she will love them. These
servants will be regular in their prayers and their families will be happy.
112) Eji Teto manshe Mowla Ali ne
Seva karshe dhari baho pujar
Teno allah te ali kahiae
Je koie aanshe itbaar Cheto....
112. They will also believe in Hazrat Ali and will serve Him with love and
will acknowledge Ali as Allah.
113) Eji Ali allah je koie manshe
Teno pir te Nabi Mohammed avtar
Je nabi jini aal mahain thi upajshe
Te pir musalle saar Cheto....
113. Those who will acknowledge Ali as Allah, they are indeed equivalent
to Pir and Nabi, and one can call them as from Nabi.
114) Eji Aal alijini sahi kari manshe
Je thashe te khawja no parwar
Sache sidake te chalshe
Ali Mohammed ni aal upar rakhshe piyar Cheto....
114. Momins, believe Ali's progeny to be true and those who will do this
will get the benefit as those servants did. They will also be guided to
the right path if they will love Ali and Muhammed.
115) Eji Tena iman ame rakhshoon
Jyare vartse kaljug kalikar
Tene potana kari rakhshoon
Aagal mahadan mahain utarsoon paar Cheto.....
115. We will believe with true Iman/Faith in Ali, especially in this present
material world (Kaljoog); we will also
consider Him as our own so that He will be our cause for salvation. (This
is what the servants will pledge.)
116) Eji Tare Nabi Mohammed boliya
Tame sambaro parvardigaar
Tamare Farmane ame chalsoon
Tame mehar karo sirjan haar Cheto.....
116. Nabi then replied, "O My Lord, I will obey Your Farman, please be
Merciful on me."
When Imam makes a Farman, even if it is hard to follow, even Pir follows it. In this case, Pir had many difficulties in fulfilling this task including fasting for 7 days.
Title: Farman kari Nar-ji boliyaa
Author: Pir Shams
Source: bhg3-022 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
Eji Farman kari Nar-ji boliyaa
tame saambharo Pir Shams vaat;
tame jaavo aaj jamaat maa,
ane parkho teunaa imaan 1
Eji Taare Pir Shams boliyaa,
Shaah ji saambharo mori vaat;
tame je Farmaavo te maangiye,
te mang-sun gat jamaat paas 2
Eji Pir Shams to tasbhi lai betthaa,
saaheb raakh-jo hamaari laaj;
saat divas no rojo raakhio,
ane koi na aave Pir ne paas 9
When a Talika is received, it is called a written Farman. A prayer is sung for the Imam to bestow an audience in person.
SAAHEBE Farmaan LAKHEE MOKALYAA
Author: Pir Hassan Kabirdin
Source: bhg4-053 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
ejee saahebe Farmaan lakhee mokalyaa
sunno maaraa nar haree re ya alee
sevak sa(m)bhaaryaa vaale aaj
man maa(n)he mayaa dharee re ya ali..........................1
O momins! The Master(Imaam) has sent the Commandments
(Farmaans) having written them. O my beloved momins! listen to me,
He is indeed the Master, the Lord Oh Ali. The Beloved Master
has remembered His servants today with utmost mercy and
affection in His heart Oh Ali.
ejee charann te aapnnaa bhettaaddjo
sunno maaraa nar haree re ya alee
nazar karo moraa shaam
akheeyu(n) amee bharee re ya alee............................4
O our Lord! Let us embrace your feet. O my momins, listen
(and pray to Him) for He is indeed the Master, the Lord Oh Ali.
O our Lord! Look at us (compassionately) for Your eyes are filled
with the water of mercy, Oh Ali.
Imam's words are precious, He is the supreme authority, The Followers obey His every command.
Title: Shaam kun aavanta jo kahe
Author: Pir Sadardin
Source: bhg4-071 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
ejee swaamee ke gale me(n) haar hay - heeraa maannek jaddeeyaa
jeesare bhaave taaku(n) det hay - saaheb hay deel dariyaa....2
Around the Master's neck there is a necklace, set with diamonds and jewels. He gives to whom he pleases, for the Lord is infinitely generous.
There is a necklace worn by the Imaam where in diamonds and gems are studded.(expression of heavenly and invaluable treasure of wisdom and knowledge at the disposal of the Imaam). He gratifies (guides) whom He likes (since) the Imaam is ocean heartedly generous.
ejee swaamee maaro chatur sujaann hay - aape sreshtth divaan
jeesa ke bharose sthir rahyaa - rahyaa jameen aasmaan........3
My Master is knowing and wise, and his is the supreme authority. He who abides firmly trusting in him has the earth and the sky at his feet.
My Lord(Imaam) is All Intelligent and All Knowing, He is the one who is to judge and take account of your deeds. By His support and guidance, a devotee attains control over the earth and the heavens.
ejee jaa(n)thakee hee jug jeet hay - ma(n)y hu(n) baa(n)dee re taakee
vachane vachane paau(n) bharu - cha(n)daa suraj saakhee......4
So long as this world endures, I am his handmaiden. I humbly obey his every command, the moon and the sun be my witness.
I am a slave of the one by whose cause the entire universe is alive and active. I place my footsteps according to His guidances, the sun and the moon bear witness to this fact.
Follow Farmans to see the light of the Imam
BUJ NIRA(N)JAN BY PEER SADARDEEN: 297 verses in 33 parts
piyaa darashan kaho kaese paaee-e
taj maayaa or gurse jaaee-e.......................................1
How can you achieve your Beloved's Vision(darshan)? Leave this illusory existence(attachments) and proceed along with the Guide.
ehee karo jo(je) gur Farmaave
taa the darashan piyaa ke(kaa) paave..............................2
Act according to the Farmaans of the Guide, then you will attain the Vision/Light of the Beloved.
Title: Saloko Motto
satgur kahere: maheemaa amaaro raakhjo
ane vachan amaaraa sheer chaddaay
te to paa(n)ch hatyaa thee chhuttse
te amaaraa vachan ne partaape..................191
The True Guide says: Always keep our dignity and respect and keep our Spoken Farmans in your heads(minds). One will be freed from the five evil vices through remembrance and obedience to our Spoken Farmans.
Satgur kahere: gat gangaa ne ame trann vachan kahyaa
ane Farmaan bolyaa teh
jyaare Farmaan amaaru sheer chaddaaveeyu
tyaare ame elam maa(n)he aalee saa(n)kh re.....205
The True Guide says: We have given three promises to the Jamaat (referring to three times prayer), and we have made Farmaans there in. When a momin has internalised the Farmaan in his/her head(mind), then we give him/her the Link in (Divine) knowledge(Ginaans).
Consequence of disobeying a Farman
Title: Allah ek khasam sab kaa
Author: Pir Sadardin
Source: bhg4-080 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
ejee jumale feerashte sujeedaa keeyaa, aadam sujeedaa leeyaa
ajaajeele Farmaan na maanyaa, so lekhaa radaj keeyaa
All the angels prostrated and Adam accepted their prostrations. Azazil did not obey
or follow the Farmaan and therefore annulled all his earnings completely.
Believe in Farmans and Read Ginans
Title: Hojire vira haajar Gur Nar jaann-jo
Author: Pir Sadardin
Source: bhg5-066 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
hojeere veeraa satgur saache mane seereveeye,
ane saacho raakhone imaan;
gurnu(n) Farmaan saachu(n) karee jaannajo,
tame vaa(n)chee juvone geenaan....3
O dear ones, worship(serve) the True Guide with true heart and keep true faith. Regard the command of the Guide (Farmaan) as the truth and read and reflect upon the geenaan(contemplative wisdom and knowledge of the Guide).
Salvation through Farmans:
Title: Sat panth sat nu mukkh chhe
Author: Hassan Kabirdin
Source: bhg4-037 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
ejee Farmaan maano to feraa ttallo,
peershaah kahetaa utareeye pele paar
tame sate amaraapuree paamsho
sahee jaannjo neerdhaar.....................................13
Follow the Farmaans so that you may overcome (the bondages of)
the (repeated) cycles of rebirths. Through the guidance of the
Guide and the Master, one crosses over the limits of material
existence. Through the adherance to the Truth you will attain
paradise. Know this as the truth for certain.
Title: Nito nit ghat pujo kiji ye - jodilo - 2
Author: Pir Shams
Source: bgh6-034 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
Eji Farmaan amaaraa jo maanso,
to paamso amraapuri vaas;
anat sukh tiyaa paamso,
to paamso Nar jine haath 11
Read Ginans, follow Farmans, consequence of not following.
Title: Sat -ne maarge chaaliye - jodilo - 3
Author: Pir Shams
Source: bgh6-035 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
Eji Sat ne maarge chaalie,
to bhed paamie saar;
Gurnaa ginaanj vaanchie,
samje thi utarie paar 1
Eji Farmaan amaaro je na maanse,
vali nahi maanse vaat;
te tthaam kiaae nahi paamse,
nahi malse Gur-Nar ne saath 2
Eji Vann samjiaa te pathar sarikhaa,
tesun na karvi haiaa kutt soy;
je Satgur vachane chaale nahi,
te kem kari amar hoy 3
Eji Ginaan vachan chhe amtannaa,
jenne ridaa maanhe raakheaa saar;
te bhagat amaaraa jaannjo,
te ginaani utare paar 7
Title: Eji Farmaan Ilaahi Jabraail kun
Author: Sayyed Imaam Shaah
Source: bhg4-055 - 600 Ginans published by: Recreation Club Institute, Bombay , Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, 1934
Eji Farmaan Ilaahi Jabraail kun,
baawaa Nabi se amar lahendaa ji 1
Eji Aal Imaam ne Pir musale,
baawaa Nabi se barhak sidaa-i ji 2
Eji Chashme shanaakhat dilbi muhobat,
baawaa jibhiyaa chalaavant yaari e-ji 3
Eji Tenaa ghar bhitar saaheb raajo bharpur bethaa,
saanhiyaa donu thaam savaariyaa e-ji 4
Eji Akal khole jaakun Farmaan haajar,
haajar din-ki raahaa rachindaa e-ji 5
Eji Aavo rikhisar kario sakhaavat,
tame sat ma chhoddo moraa bhaai e-ji 6
Eji Jenne sarjiyaa taakun srevo,
tame dhiyaavo to dharam vichaaro e-ji 7
Eji Jeni saachi sukhrit hui fal leshe,
baawaa Farmaan ne pach rahevaa e-ji 8
Eji Jenne het prit duniyaa dil laaynnaa
tin kun Shaah Pir Gur nahi maliaa e-ji 9
Our Holy Ginans are full of details about evolution. Following are some points written by Alwaez Abualy Alibhai Aziz.
“Lakh Chorasi” mentioned in our Ginans is nothing else but the theory of evolution. If you read “Moman Chitwaini” by our Holy Pir Sadruddin, you will get the full explanation about evolution and the process of creation. This book contains 630 stanzas but the language is difficult. It requires an expert to understand it. Some knowledge of Sanskrit and Prakrit is absolutely necessary.
Lakh Chorasi means 8,400,000 stages or forms of life on earth. It means a form of a species. For example, there are more than 3,000 species of snakes known today. But many more species might have been living in the past, and are now extinct.
It has taken 4,313,000 years of evolution from the amoeba to man of today. Some details:
After another 432,000 years’ period of development, the civilized man appeared during the period of the first RAMA (there are hundreds of kings known as Rama) who lived about 864,000 years ago.
Modern man and his immediate ancestors have been living on earth for the past 7,000 years during which the Biblical Prophets have appeared. The Great Flood perhaps came in this period.
Between the two major stages of evolution such as amoeba and fish, there were thousands of developing and evolving stages which produced hundred of thousands of species. Most of them are now extinct.
Our theory of Das Awtaar is not Hindu mythology though it is found in Hindu Scriptures. It is in fact the explanation of the process of evolution in a simple manner, and understanding its relation to the Divine Guidance.
The Sanskrit word “awtaar” is generally misunderstood by most of us. It means to descend or descended; to change shape; the span of life; preface; one after another etc. So you see it does not mean God. It means descended, the Arabic equivalent of which is “naazil” or “munazzil”. These words have been extensively used in the Holy Quran where Allah mentions His Noor or His message.
Our Holy Imam Mowlana Sultan Mohammed Shah once explained the existence of the MACHHA-AWTAAR in these words:
“When there was nothing but fish on earth, God stood as Witness and you must have no doubt to that kind of witness from above.”(Mission Conference, Dar-es-Salaam, 1945)
In Sanskrit, Khaan means store or evolution. The Holy Pir has also mentioned that there were four divisions of the process of evolution. These are: Shitage Khaan, Jadage Khaan, Indage Khaan, and Udrbhud Khaan (see chart for explanation):
The human soul has crossed the vast ocean of Lakh Chorasi and now appears in human stage. There is enough evidence that the soul is developing and progressing all the time. Everything that Nature has produced is progressing. If there is any deterioration or destruction, it is for reproduction in a better form.
Normally a soul will not turn back to an animal stage; but, of course, in some exceptional cases a soul may be retarded or degraded to lower stages as a punishment and for improvement. Otherwise it is created and is meant for development. It may make progress during its human life on earth as well as in the Hereafter.
A human being is given several chances in his lifetime to improve and develop. He is also given many lives to make progress enough to reach nearer and nearer to his Creator.
EVOLUTION IN GINANS
The following is an interesting chart about evolution and the Das Awtaar explaining: the four yugs (jugs); the names and meanings of Das Awtaar and their ten devilish opponents; the number of various species; the percentage of sin and virtue in different times, and many other details.
According to our Holy Ginans, the Wonderful Tradition, life started on earth thousands of million years ago. It was destroyed after a certain evolution for many millions of years. After the elapse of some millenniums, life reappeared on earth. There were many such cycles of life and destruction.
The present cycle of life on earth started about 3,985,000 years ago. According to Hazrat Pir Sadruddin (1300-1415 A.D.), life on earth started with the amoeba. It evolved and divided into 1870 million species (varieties) of life in water, in the air, and on the ground.
In the beginning, the earth was not so far away from the sun. Life started first in the north, perhaps in the arctic region because this was the first part of the earth to cool down. As the north became unbearably cold, the creatures moved down toward the tropical zone. One-third of the species became extinct in the process of evolution.
In the beginning of the second Yug Treta, man evolved from ape. This phenomenon occurred about 2.2 million years ago. Scientists are gradually discovering now what Hazrat Pir Sadruddin had told us six hundred years ago.
The Torah (Taw’ rat), Zabboor (Jam’ bur), Injeel (Ingil) and Quran appeared during the last seven thousand years. The first three Holy Books (revealed to Prophets Moses, David, and Jesus respectively) are actually the parts of the Divine Message that the Quran contains. Similarly, the Message in the Scriptures of Rigg Veda (Rug Vedh), Yajur Veda (Jujr Vedh), and Saam Veda (Sham Vedh) in the first three Yugs was briefly repeated in the Athir Veda (Athar Vedh), which appeared in the beginning of the fourth Yug, the Kal Yug, but before the Great Flood. That is why the Holy Pir said that Athir Veda is the Holy Quran.
About seven thousand years of the Kal Yug have passed so far, during which the Biblical Prophets lived. The ninth Awtaar, the Manifestation of Noor of Allah, was Hazrat Buddh (not the Buddha who was Prince Sidharatha in 500 B.C.). He was Prophet Adam but not he Abul Bashr.
There are 4 Kalaps: 1. Jaheyla 2. Faheyla 3. Arja 4. Khalifa Similarly, there are 3 Karans, each 33 million years which = 99 million years. The 4 Yugs (Jugs) are: KARTA YUG TRETA YUG DWAPUR YUG KAL YUG 1,728,000 yrs. 1,296,000 yrs. 864,000 yrs. 432,000 yrs. Totally, 4,320,000 years. The 4 Angels and their duties are: MIKAEL ASHRAFIL AZRAIL GABRIEL blows the wind puts spirit in removes the spirits messenger between the body (life) from the body God & Prophets There are also 4 directions: 1. Utar-North 2. Dakshin-South 3. Purve-East 4. Pashchim-West
By Mumtaz Ali Tajddin Sadiq Ali
Very little is known today about the early history of Nizari Ismaili Da'wa in the Indian
subcontinent. Except for a few brief mentions in the writings of that period, most of our
information regarding the preaching of Ismailism, the development of Ginanic literature and the
Pirs and Sayyeds who composed them is internal, that is, it is mentioned in their works. While
there is a general agreement amongst the scholars that the works that have survived to the
present time represent only a fraction of what was originally composed. At present, there is no
way of knowing how many works were originally composed. However, it is reasonable to
assume that up to the time of Pir Tajdin (d.1467) and Sayyed Imam Shah (d.1512), complete
treaties of the works of earlier Pirs must have existed. We get a clue from a verse of a Ginan
composed by Pir Tajdin;
Varann chhatris soor baitali bhakhia,
Berada kan-e na surann, ho jir-e bhai. 
We have explained in thirty six languages and
fourty two melodies,
And yet the deaf would not listen, O my brother.
Extrapolating on this verse, if one were to do a linguistic analysis of the present corpus one
would expect to come across words from thirty six languages. My study so far, has revealed not
more than fifteen languages. Thus, it would be safe to conclude that what we have today is less
than half of the original corpus.
There seems a general conception amongst modern scholars [2,3] that Ginans were originally
preserved orally and put to writing at a much later date, perhaps centuries later. However , if one
were to examine the internal evidence, it is apparent that they were written down from the time
they were composed. In fact, they were preserved both orally and in writing. Some verses from
various Ginans are quoted below to support this view.
(a) Vimras and Surbann wrote down (akhar kiya) whatever Pir Shamsh had
(b) Reading (vanchiy-e) the Ginans of Pirs, with the understanding gained, you
shall attain salvation. 
(c) Even the ones who will read (vanchash-e) the Ginans will develop a sense
of superiority. 
(d) One who listens Girbhavali and reads (vanch-e) its theme will be rewarded
an eternal place in the abode of immortals. 
(e) I have written (likh-di) all matters in it. 
(f) All essences are written (likhiya) in it. 
(g) One who reads (pad-e) (this Granth) will get the understanding of the reality.
(h) Everything is written (likhiya) in the Vel. 
(i) All means of remembrance are written (likhiya) in it.
Most probably the practice of transcribing would have been limited to the Da'is working under
the Pirs. These texts would be used by the Da'is themselves and copies to be placed in Jamat
khana for reading and memorizing by the converts.
Very few manuscripts exist today which are more than a century old, the reasons are all too
familiar, the environment, the general neglect and at times systematic destruction. In my seven
years of study, I have had the opportunity of examining some sixty two manuscripts. Below are
some of my notes regarding references to the earliest dates discovered so far.
One of the manuscripts that I examined was transcribed by a certain Devdas Khetta. The
manuscript is in a remarkably good condition. The scribe gives the date of writing as 1902 and
most probably at Ahmedabad. The manuscript contains the Granth `Anant Akhado' of Pir Hassan
Kabirdin. While the Granth does not differ very much from the present printed version, there is
an interesting note in the manuscript. The scribe narrates that; " Once I visited Jiraq in 1838
when I was twenty seven years old. There I saw a wooden box, belonging to the late Kamadia
Bhimo, in the possession of Alarakhia Sumar. The box contained a turban, a robe, a wooden
cane and a text of Ginans. I was only allowed to see some pages of the text which contained the
`Das Avatar' of Pir sadardin and other Granths written in 1574 Samvat (1538 A.D.) by Kamadia
Bhimo and his colleagues. I was told that it was used to cure diseases".
Another very old manuscript that I examined belonged to a certain Khoja Bhimji Pindidas
dating back to 1594 Samvat (1538 A.D.). This manuscript contained one hundred and sixty
Ginans, written on one hundred and ninety three pages. The condition of the manuscript is
extremely poor, with many pages in an advance state of decay. The writing on some of the pages
is illegible and the remaining text abounds in errors rendering many pages meaningless. A third
very old manuscript that I examined belonged to a certain Rehmu Moloo of Nagpur. It seems
that the scribe had used part of this book as a personal diary. The volume contains two hundred
and thirty one pages of which some ninety are used for Ginans, the rest being reserved for his
financial records. No dates for transcribing are explicitly given. However, two dates do creep up
in the personal portion of the volume and probably reflect the date of writing. These are 1608
Samvat (1552 A.D.) and 1613 (1577 A. D.).
An Important manuscript that I had an opportunity to examine belonged to a certain Abdullah
Meherali Dharamshi of Kutchh. The scribe gives the date of 1830 Samvat (1774 A. D.), however
he notes that this volume was copied from an older manuscript of Chandubhai Lakhdir dating
back to 1749 Samvat (1693 A. D.). Another noteworthy manuscript is that of a certain Bhagat
Meru transcribed around 1902 Samvat (1846 A.D.). This manuscript contains an interesting
note. The scribe narrates; "My grandfather, Piru Tikkam was well versed in Ginans and whose
hand written text was in possession of Bhagat Rehmu of Sind. The volume had severely
deteriorated, however, I was able to go there (Sind ? ) before it was summoned to the flowing
waters. Although I am sick and my hands are shaking, I was able to copy those pages which were
still legible on this day of 1902". The reader should note that in those days it was a common
practice to either bury or to throw an old manuscript in sea or river, once a new copy had been
made. From a research point of view it is very disappointing to note that many manuscripts do
not give any dates nor any names or information about the scribe.
It is also worth mentioning a common problem encountered in the study of Ginanic manuscripts;
the corruption of words foreign to the scribe. Ginans being polyglot, not only contain words from
several Indian languages, but also contain Arabic, Persian and Sindhi words. In Ginans it is quite
common to see the ancient scribes misspell a foreign word. The misspelled word is then carried
through by the subsequent copyists until it almost replaces the original word. The following
table is not only meant to serve as an example, but also to help clarify some otherwise
AS FOUND IN ORIGINAL WORD/ MEANING
maal haal maul-e man lahul mawla one who has lord
to fil haal qul fa lahul qul he has everything
mer-e chit ko mi rayatto whatever I saw
mirasool mur'sal revealed one
masbha misbah lamp
bhoj buz goat
gorakh gurq wolf
arushi urusi wedding
gadh gad with
vatr vat sowing season
natti nathi son-in-law
dis disha direction
baluk balak infant
savar savver quick
thun than place
jetr jeet victory
katha kothi warehouse
In addition the following proper names are often found in corrupted form;
PROPER NAME AS FOUND IN MANUSCRIPT
Abuzar Ali Bhudar Ali
Islam Shah Salam Shah
PRINTING OF GINANIC TEXTS
According to some accounts, Imam Aga Hassanali Shah ordered the collection of Ginan
manuscripts some time after his arrival in India from Iran in 1842. According to one source this
task was initiated around 1878 or 1880. Whereas according to other sources it was Imam Aga
Ali Shah who ordered the collection. Finally it was during the time of Imam Sultan Mohammed
Shah that the task of comparing, editing and compiling standard versions of the Ginans got under
way by Mukhi Lalji Devraj and his colleagues. Initial volumes were lithographic. Printed
editions followed after the establishment of `Khoja Sindhi Printing Press'. All the early editions
were in Khojki.
Gujarati editions followed at a much later date. It seems that after the compilation of standard
versions all the source manuscripts were destroyed. All the scholars [13-15] agree on this point,
they only differ on the means of destruction. According to some they were burned, whereas
according to others they were buried.
Over the years several lists of major Ginans and Granths have appeared including one by Mukhi
Lalji Devraj himself  in 1922. Ivanow published three lists between 1936 and 1963 [17-19].
The latest is of Poonawalla . It seems that all of these are incomplete. One reason could be
that except for the first one, all relied on second hand information. The following list is believed
to be complete, until hereto unknown Ginans are found.
I SATGUR NUR
(a) Ginans : 9
(b) Granths : 1
1. Putla (222 distiches)
II PIR SHAMSH
(a) Ginans : 106 (including 28 Garbis).
(b) Granths : 9
1. Brahm Prakash (150 distiches)
2. Mulbandh no Achhodo (also known as Hans Hansli ni varta) (504 couplets)
Vel (31 couplets)
3. Chandrabann (50 sonnets)
Vel (12 sonnets)
4. Surbann (50 sonnets)
Vel (12 sonnets)
5. Raja Goverchand aakhiyana (295 verses)
6. Raja Goverchandni benno aakhiyana (98 verses)
7. Mansamjamanni Vadi (401 parts of 20 lines)
8. Sloko Moto (240 quatrains)
9. Vaek Moto (64 quatrains)
Vel (31 quatrains)
III PIR SADARDIN
(a) Ginans : 214
(b) Granths : 15
1. Buj Nirinjan (33 parts, total 581 lines)
2. Aradh (22 parts of 21 lines)
3. Vinod (22 verses)
4. Athar Ved (11 parts of prose)
5. Surat Samachar (5 pages of prose)
6. Girbhavali Nani (3 pages of prose)
7. Girbhavali Shastra (Moti) (17 pages of prose)
8. Budh Avatar (525 verses)
9. Das Avatar (10 parts)
10. Moman Chitvenni [To munivarbhai Moti] (552 verses)
11. Bawan Gatti (52 parts)
12. Khat Nirinjan (2 parts in 132 distiches)
Vel (128 distiches)
13. Khat Darshan (3 parts in 235 verses)
Vel (81 verses)
14. Shiksha Patri
Bawan Bodh (54 verses)
So Kriya (100 verses)
Sahi Samranni (32 verses)
15. Sloko Nano (120 quatrains)
IV PIR HASSAN KABIRDIN
(a) Ginans : 79
(b) Granths : 8
1. Gavantri (6 pages of prose)
2. Brahm Gavantri (2 pages of prose)
3. Hasnapuri (165 couplets)
Vel ( 84 couplets)
4. Anant Akhado (500 quatrains)
5. Anant na nav chhugga (90 quatrains in 9 parts)
6. Anant na viva (233 quatrains)
7. Satgur Nur na viva (222 verses)
8. Hassan Kabirdin ane Kanipa no samvad (13 pages of prose)
V SAYYED IMAM SHAH
(a) Ginans : 162
(b) Granths : 14
1. Naklanki Gita (66 pages of prose)
2. Moman Chetamanni (630 verses of 5 lines each)
3. Athar Ved Gayantri (5 pages of prose)
4. Momin Chitvarnni (To Munivarbhai Nani) (323 quatrains)
5. Vis Tol (20 short parts)
6. Pandav no Parab (578 couplets)
7. Janatpuri (153 quatrains)
8. Mul Gayantri (Gayantri Moti) (50 pages)
9. Das Avatar Moto (1600 couplets)
10. Jannkar (487 couplets)
11. Mansamjamanni Nani (332 couplets)
Vel ( couplets)
46 Sunnat (1 page of prose)
12. Mulbandh sol thal, Char chowk (17 Ginans in prose and verse)
13. Bai Budhai (collection of 71 short Ginans)
14. Gugri na das Ginan (collection of 10 Ginans)
VI SAYYED NUR MOHAMMED SHAH
(a) Ginans : 0
(b) Granths : 2
1. Satvenni Moti (222 parts of 7 couplets each)
Vel (150 parts of 26 couplets each)
2. Satvarnni Moti (316 parts of 10 couplets each)
VI SAYYED AHMED SHAH
(a) Ginans : 0
(b) Granths : 1
1. Si Harfi (8 parts)
VII GINANS BY VARIOUS PIRS
(a) Pir Nasirdin : 1
(b) Pir Saibdin : 5
(c) Pir Tajdin : 1
(d) Pir Hashim Shah : 2
(e) Pir Ali Akbar Beg : 1
(f) Pir Ali Asgar Beg : 1
VIII GINANS BY VARIOUS SAYYEDS
(a) Sayyed Mohammed Shah : 9
(b) Sayyed Fazal Shah : 3
(c) Sayyed Miran Khan : 4
(d) Sayyed Addul Nabi : 2
(e) Sayyed Fateh Ali Shah : 2
(f) Sayyed Miran Mehdi : 2
(g) Sayyeda Imam Begum :10
(h) Sayyed Mitha Shah : 1
(i) Sayyed Rahemtullah : 1
(j) Sayyed Saleh Shah : 1
(k) Sayyed Miran Moh'd: : 1
(l) Sayyed Ladha Shah : 1
(m) Sayyed Kutubdin : 1
(n) Sayyed Aal Imam : 1
(o) Sayyed Hussain : 1
(p) Sayyed Ghulam Ali Shah : 1
Sayyeda Imam Begum was the last the last descendants of our Pirs whose compositions are
recognised as Ginans.
1. "105 Ginans" Part II, Ginan # 69 verse #3, Ismailia Association for India, 1979.
2. Ivanow W., "Satpanth", COLLECTANEA, pp 40. E.J. Brill, Holland, 1948.
3. Nanji A., "The Nizari Ismaili tradition in Hind and Sind" pp 15. Unpublished
Thesis McGill University 1972.
4. Shams Pir, "Mansamjamnni Vadi", verse 401.
5. Shams Pir, "Collection of Ginans of Pir Shams", 62:1, pp 66.Ismailia Association
for India, 1952.
6. Sadardin Pir, "Collection of Ginans of Pir Sadardin", 151:24,pp 161. Ismailia
Association for India, 1952.
7. Sadardin Pir, "Girbhavali Nani", last line.
8. Nur Mohammed Shah Sayyed, "Satvarrni Vadi", 316:8.
9. Nur Mohammed Shah Sayyed, "Satvenni-ji Vel", 150:6.
10. Ibid, 150:14.
11. Ibid, 150:16.
12. Ibid, 150:24.
13. Ivanow W., "Collectanea", Vol I, pp 40. E. J. Brill, Holland, 1948.
14. Nanji A., "The Nizari Ismaili tradition in Hind and Sind", pp 12. Unpublished
thesis, McGill University, 1972.
15. Poonawalla I., "Bibliography of Ismaili literature", pp 26. University of California,
16. Devraj Lalji Mukhi, "Raag Malla". Ismailia Association for India, 1922.
17. Ivanow W., "The sect of Imam Shah in Gujrat", J.B.B.R., pp 22-24. 1936.
18. Ivanow W., "Collectanea", Vol I, pp 42-43. E. J. Brill, Holland, 1948.
19. Ivanow W., "Ismaili Literature" pp 174-181. Ismaili Society, 1963.
20. Poonawalla I., "Biobibliography of Ismaili literature", pp 298-311. University of
California, LA, 1977.
By Alwaez rai Abualy A. Aziz
The Nizari Ismaili Pirs and Sayyeds who preached in the Indian subcontinent until the turn of the Century composed a vast corpus of Ginanic literature. It is a sad fact that no one today, knows for sure what was the extent of this corpus. A well known Ismaili preacher and missionary Bhagat Kara Ruda (d.1934) wrote several commentaries on Ginans, two of which, Girbhavali and Bhuj Nirinjan, I have in my possession in manuscript form. He stated that the Pirs converted half a million people to Satpanth and they composed over ten million stanzas of literature. While he does not mention his source of information, one can in my opinion relay on the integrity of such a spiritually advanced person. Today we only have a small fraction of this literature left in the printed form.
There are several reasons which have been put forward for this loss. Some of them have already been discussed today by other speakers. However, there is one reason which has not been mentioned so far and this is the migration of people out of our faith. In their mission, our Pirs converted people from varied backgrounds and over considerable geographical expanse. Over the period of time some of these groups, either due to persuasion or isolation, drifted out of our faith. Thus it is not hard to see how large chunks of literature must have been in their possession. An excellent example of this process was brought to light this morning by Al-waez Salim Musa regarding the Ginans of Sayyed Badardin.
In this presentation, I will attempt to add up all the published Ginans and Granths, in order to arrive at a numerical figure of the published material of Ginanic literature. These are as follows;
1. Anant Akhado [P.Hk.] 500 vrs.
2. Anant na nav chuga [P.Hk.] 90 vrs.
3. Bai budhai no savad [Sy.IS & Sy. BB] 544 vrs. (*1 )
4. Bavan bodh [P. Sd.] 54 vrs. (*2 )
5. Brahma Prakask [P.Sh.] 150 vrs.
6. Budh Avataar [P.Sd.] 525 vrs. (*3 )
7. Buj Nirinjan [P.Sd.] 33 Chugas 646 vrs.
8. Chandraban [P.Sh.] 50 vrs. (*4 )
9. Chandraban ni Vel [P.Sh.] 12 vrs.
10. Chatur Kalap no mandann [P.Sd.] 235 vrs.
11. Das Avataar Moto [Sy.IS] 1613 vrs.
12. Garbi [P.Sh.] 516 vrs.
13. Gugri na Ginano [Sy.IS] 63 vrs.
14. Hasnapuri [P.Hk.] 165 vrs.
15. Hasnapuri ni Vel [P.Hk.] 84 vrs.
16. Janatpuri [Sy.IS] 158 vrs.
17. Jankar [Sy.IS] 487 vrs.
18. Khat darshan [P.Sd.] 45 vrs.
19. Khat darshan ni Vel [P.Sd.] 81 vrs.
20. Khat Nirinjan [P.Sd.] 266 vrs.
21. Mansamjamanni Vadi [P.Sh.] 401 Chugas 8020 stz. (*5 )
22. Mansamjamanni Nindhi [Sy.IS] 331 vrs.
23. Moman Chetamanni [Sy.IS] 630 vrs.
24. Moman Chitvarnni [Sy.IS] 323 vrs.
25. Momin Chitvenni [P.Sd] 552 vrs.
26. Mulbandh no Achodo [P.Sh.] 550 vrs. (*6 )
27. Pandav no Parab [Sy.IS] 578 vrs.
28. Putla [P.Sn] 222 vrs.
29. Raja Govarchand ni Katha [P.Sh.] 295 vrs. (*7 )
30. Raja G'chand tatha teni ben no Akhiano [P.Sh.] 100 vrs.
31. Sahi Samranni [P.Sd.] 32 vrs.
32. Satgur Nur na viva [P.Hk.] 223 vrs.
33. Satvarnni Vadi [Sy.MS] 316 Chugas 4424 stz.
34. Satvenni vadi [Sy.NMS] 222 Chugas 3108 stz.
35. Satvenni Nendhi [Sy.IS] 22 Chugas 644 stz.
36. Satvenni ji Vel [Sy.NMS] 150 Chugas 4500 stz.
37. Si Harfi [Sy.AS] 8 Chugas 192 stz. (*8)
38. Sloko Moto [P.Sh] 240 vrs.
39. Sloko Nano [P.Sd] 120 vrs.
40. So Kriya [P.Sd] 100 vrs.
41. Surbann [P.Sh.] 50 vrs.
42. Surbann ni Vel [P.Sh.] 12 vrs.
43. Vayek Moto [P.Sh.] 64 vrs.
44. Vayek ni Vel [P.Sh.] 31 vrs.
45. Vishav Kunvari na viva [P.Hk.] 233 vrs. (*9)
# Ginan Bk. 1 1333 vrs.
# Ginan Bk. 2 1440 vrs.
# Ginan Bk. 3 1365 vrs.
# Ginan Bk. 4 1517 vrs.
# Ginan Bk. 5 1387 vrs.
# ginan Bk. 6 1003 vrs.
46. 46 Sunat [Sy.IS] 1 pg. (*10)
47. Aradh [P.Sd.] 41 pgs.
48. Athar Ved [P.Sd.] 4 pgs.
49. Atharvedi Gavantri [Sy.IS] 4 pgs.
50. Bavan Ghati [P.Sd.] 26 pgs.
51. Brahma Gavantri [P.Hk.] 3 pgs.
52. Das Avataar nano 11 pgs.
53. Gavantri [P.Sd.] 4 pgs.
54. Girbhavali Moti [P.Sd.] 40 pgs.
55. Girbhavali Nani [Sy.IS] 4 pgs.
56. Mulbandh, Sol thal & Char chowk [Sy.IS] 247 pgs. (*11)
57. Mur Gavantri [Sy. IS] 51 pgs.
58. Naklanki Gita [Sy.IS] 119 pgs.
59. Patal Gita [Sy.IS] 9 pgs. (*12)
60. Pir Hk. ane Kanipa jogi no savad [P.Hk.] 4 pgs.
61. Surat samachar [P.Sd.] 6 pgs.
62. Vinod [P.Sd.] 4 pgs.
63. Vis Tol [Sy.IS] 11 pgs.
The above list illustrates that as it stands the total extent of our published Ginanic literature is not more than some forty thousand verses and another six hundred or so pages of prose. As mentioned earlier this represents only a small part of what was originally composed. I hope that in such conferences hereto unknown works will be brought to light.
1. A total of 71 Ginans with alternate Ginans composed by Sayyed Imam Shah and Sayyeda Bai Budhai. There is one Ginan which appears to have been composed by Hajar Beg.
2. The collection of this Granth together with So Kriya and Sahi Samrani is sometimes known as Shikshapatri. Please refer to the article on the comparison of So kiriya and Shikshapatri by Al-waeza Aziza Hayat in this proceedings.
3. Buddh Awatar: The published version contains 523 verses. However, I have in my possession, in manuscript form a version with 525 verses.
4. Chandrabhan and Surbhan were two disciples of Pir Shams.
5. Mansamjani: Mukhi Lalji Devraj writes that this Granth originally contained 500 chhugas or 10,000 stanzas. However, 99 pages of the manuscript were in an advanced state of deterioration. Thus he could only copy 401 pages or chhugas.
6. This includes Hans Hansli ni Varta. It is a seperate book but bonded together.
7. This Granth and the following one are supplementary and exhorting the same theme.
8. Si-Harfi: Sayyed Ahmed Shah was the son of Sayyed NurMohammed Shah.
9. Also known as "Anant na Viva"
10. Chhetalis Sunnat: This is a short composition containing 46 instructions in preparation for prayers or going to the mosque.
11. This work has never been published in Gujrati.
12. A Khojki copy of this Granth has been published at the beginning of this century by Mukhi Laljibhay Devraj. Mr Mumtaz Ali Tajjdin has made a Gujrati transliteration of it in 1981.