|1256 - 1842||The Post-Alamut Period - 1256-1842AD|| |
The Post-Alamut period in Ismaili history discloses itself with the Imamate of Mowlana Shamsiddeen Muhammed and is punctuated by the Imamate of Mowlana Shah Khalilillahi Aly.
|1256 - 1310||Imamate of Imam Shamsiddeen Muhammed - 1256-1310AD|| |
The Imamate of Imam Shamsiddeen Muhammed marks the beginning of the second period of taqiya in Ismaili history. The great Ismaili saint, Shams Tabriz, who was also the uncle of the Imam, played a vital role in the propagation of the faith despite the harsh conditions. He is well known due to the fact that one of his loyal disciples was the mystical poet Jalaluddin Rumi. The succession of Pirs during this time was Pir Salahuddin, followed by his son Sayyid Shamsuddin, more commonly known as Pir Shams. The Imam, when passing away, appointed his son Qassim Shah as his successor (Aziz, 1974).
|1255 - 1256||Imamate of Imam Ruknuddin Khairshah - 1255-1256AD|| |
Imam Ruknuddin Khairshah reigned as Imam of the Time for a period of one to two years before being murdered by the Mongols. This event marks the end of the Alamut period. The Mongols not only managed to destroy the entire Ismaili State (the scientific instruments, observatories, libraries, and thousands of houses and buildings), but were also responsible for the death of 80,000 Ismailis (Aziz, 1974).
|1250||Birth of Imam Shamsiddeen Muhammed - 1250AD|| |
Mowlana Shamsiddeen Muhammed was born in Lamasar. As his only son, he was sent away by his father during the Mongol invasion to ensure his safety. He was destined to succeed his father at the age of eight years.
|1228||Birth of Imam Ruknuddin Khairshah - 1228AD|| |
Imam Ruknuddin Khairshah's Imamate would mark the last period of glory of the Ismaili state in Alamut. Thereafter, and until the rise of the lineage of the Aga Khans, there appears in Ismaili history a stretch of obscurity and uncertainty in terms of historic detail, most likely related to the practice of taqiya by the Imams and the Ismaili community. Nevertheless, despite the ambiguity, there remained the tradition of an unbroken chain of succession of one Imam after another by rule of nass (Sadik Ali, 1997).
|1221 - 1255||Imamate of Imam Alauddin Muhammed - 1221-1255AD|| |
Notable figures that lived during the rule of Imam Alaiddeen Muhammed include Jalaluddin Rumi, Ibn al-Arabi, and Naseeruddin Tusi, who served as the Prime Minister of the Alamut State (Aziz, 1974). Threatened by the Mongol empire, the Imam of the Time sent a message of peace to these imminent invaders, which was promptly dismissed by them in great contempt (Daftary & Hirji, 2008). Despite these uncertain times, due to the Imam's patronage of science and learning, intellectual activity flourished immensely, and attracted many scholars from outside the Fort of Alamut (Sadik Ali, 1997).
|1213||Birth of Imam Alauddin Muhammed - 1213AD|| |
Mowlana Imam Alaiddeen Muhammed was born in 1212AD and became the Imam of the Time at the age of 9 years.
|1210 - 1221||Imamate of Imam Jalaluddin Hassan - 1210-1221AD|| |
The orthodox Muslims had responded to the doctrine of qiyama by propagating that the Ismailis had violated the Islamic Shariah. In order to avoid secular marginalization and subsequently suffer from isolation and economic hardship, Imam Jalaluddin Hassan restricted his followers in preaching the doctrine of qiyama and encouraged them instead to adopt such esoteric practices in solitude, as was common with many Sufi traditions in the past.
|1186||Birth of Imam Jalaluddin Hassan - 1186AD|| |
Imam Jalaluddin Hassan was born in Lamasar in the year 1185AD. He would play a significant role in articulating the concept of qiyama, first declared by his grandfather Mowlana Ala Zikrihis Salaam in 1164AD.
|1166 - 1210||Imamate of Imam Ala Muhammed - 1166-1210AD|| |
The Imamate of Imam Ala Muhammed spanned a period of about 44 years - a span of time that saw the succession of three Pirs one after the other, namely, Pir Salaamuddin, followed by Sayyid Solehdin alias Sayyid Muhammed Noorbaksh, followed by Pir Salaahuddin. The Imam died of poisoning and was buried in Alamut in 1210AD.
|1163 - 1166||Imamate of Imam Ala Zikrihis Salaam - 1163-1166AD|| |
Born in Alamut, Mowlana Imam Ala Zikrihis Salaam is known to have declared the Yaum el-Qiyama or Day of Resurrection on the 19th of Ramazan, 559AH (10th of August, 1164). On the day, he made the following farman to the Jamat: "I am your Imam-e-Zaman, I am Hasan bin Qahir bin Mohtadi bin Hadi bin Nizar bin Mustansir Billah. The line of our succession will continue till the end of this world. I am pleased with your obedience and fealty. You have made in the past great sacrifices, which I accept and bless you. Today I have explained to you the Law (Shariat) and its meaning.
|1158 - 1163||Imamate of Imam Qahir - 1158-1163AD|| |
During the reign of Imam Qahir, the Imam once again began to govern both religious and temporal powers, the latter of which had been entrusted hitherto in the hands of an appointed prime minister or dai during the period of Dawri Satr. In taking over temporal rule from Muhammed bin Kaya, the third territorial ruler and hujjat at Alamut - the first two having been Hassan bin Sabbah and Kiya Buzrug Ummid, respectively - Imam Qahir appointed Muhammed as his vizier and the latter served as such until his death in 1162.
|1155||Birth of Imam Ala Muhammed - 1155AD|| |
Born in the fortress of Lamasar, Mowlana Ala Muhammed would grow up to prove himself a great writer in philosophy and jurisprudence.
|1152||Birth of Imam Ala Zikrihis Salaam - 1152AD|| |
The 23rd Imam of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims, Imam Ala Zikrihis Salaam, was born in Alamut in the year 1152AD.
|1138 - 1157||Imamate of Imam Mohtadi - 1138-1157AD|| |
The reign of Imam Mohtadi was comparatively peaceful and prosperous. New castles were built and territories were expanded. The Imam passed away in Alamut where he was buried, and was succeeded by his son Qahir.
|1121||Birth of Imam Qahir - 1121AD|| |
Born in Alamut, Imam Qahir's full name was al-Qahir bi Quowatullah. Physically well-built and handsome, he took an early interest in the governing of affairs at Alamut and succeeded to the Throne of Imamate when he was in his late thirties.
|1106||Birth of Imam Mohtadi - 1106AD|| |
Imam Mohtadi, born in the fortress of Lamasar, was the first Ismaili Imam to have taken birth in Iran.
|1097 - 1138||Imamate of Imam Hadi - 1097-1138AD|| |
Imam Hadi was 21 years of age when he succeeded to the Throne of Imamate. Escaping imprisonment by his uncle Caliph Mustali, Imam Hadi established a new Ismaili kingdom at Alamut. Founded by Hassan bin Sabbah during the Imamate of Imam Mustansir Billah, the new state of Alamut was to last for 170 years, until the Imamate of Imam Ruknuddin Khairshah. During the reign of Imam Hadi, Ismailism spread from the Caspian to the Mediterranean Sea, as well as to Central Asia and India.
|1097 - 1256||Alamut Period - A New Ismaili Rule - 1097-1256|| |
Founded by Hassan bin Sabbah in the year 1090, the fort of Alamut is situated in the north-west of Tehran, Iran. This glorious period in Ismaili history began with the arrival of Imam Hadi in 1097 and lasted for 170 years, until the death of Imam Rukniddin Khairshah. The latter had reigned for only one year before being murdered by the Mongols in the year 1256. The Alamut period in Ismaili history marks a time when the community made great strides in education, the sciences, economics, politics, as well as the religious sciences.
|1094||Creation of the Bohra Sect at the death of Imam Mustansirbillah I - 1094|| |
Scision dans le mouvement Ismaelien: naissance de la secte Bohra a la mort de l'Imam mustansir Billah I
|1094 - 1097||Imamate of Imam Nizar - 1094-1097AD|| |
Al-Mustali, the younger half-brother of Imam Nizar, in a wave of political ambitions of perverse administrators of the state, would himself come to be the leader of the seceding sect of the Ismailis, the Bohras. In coming to terms with the reality of this situation, Imam Nizar, upon the death of his father Imam Mustansir Billah, left Cairo for Alexandria where he found the support and allegiance of both the governor and the qadi of Alexandria.
|1069||Birth of Imam Hadi - 1069AD|| |
Mowlana Imam Hadi, the 20th Imam of the Ismailis, was born in Cairo in the year 462AH (1069AD) during the Imamat of his grandfather Imam Mustansir Billah.
|1059||Khutba pronounced in Bagdad in the name of khalif -Imam Al-Mustansirr Billah I - 1059|| |
Khoutba prononce a Bagdad au nom du Calif -Imam Al-Mustansirr Billah I
|1052 - 1351||Sumra Ismaili Dynasty in India - 443-752AH|| |
Dynastie des Ismaeliens Sumras en Inde
|1045||Birth of Imam Nizar - 1045AD|| |
Imam Nizar was born on the 10th of Rabi-el-Awwal, 437AH, 1045AD, in Cairo. He would succeed his father as the 19th Imam of the Ismailis at the age of 51 years.
|1037 - 1139||Sulayhid Dynasty - 1037-1139|| |
Sulayhid Ismaili Dynasty in Yemen - 1037-1139
Dynastie des Ismaeliens Sulayhides au Yemen
|1036 - 1094||Imamate of Imam Mustansir Billah - 1036-1094AD|| |
During his reign, political unrest amidst a massive earthquake contributed to much of the insecurity and economic instability throughout the Fatimid territory. Notable personalities who lived during this Imam's rule include among others Hassan bin Sabbah, Nasir Khusraw, and Omar Khayyam. Pir Muhammed Shah, more commonly known as Pir Satgur Noor, was one of the Hujjatal Pirs at this time in the lineage of pirs. At the death of Imam Mustansir Billah, a split took place among the Ismailis, with the seceders, who would come to be known as the Bohras, following Caliph Mustali.
|1029||Birth of Imam Mustansir Billah - 1029AD|| |
Imam Mustansir Billah was born on the 17th of Jama'di-el Thani, 420 AH, 1029AD, in Cairo. He would become the eighth Fatimid Caliph at the early age of seven years, and reign as Imam and Caliph for a period of more than 60 years.
|1021 - 1036||Imamate of Imam Zahir - 1021-1036AD|| |
Imam Zahir became the Imam of the Time and the seventh Fatimid Caliph at the young age of 16 years. This period marks the life and times of the famous Ismaili physician and philosopher Avicenna.
|1021||Creation of the Druze sect at the Death of Imam Al-Hakim|| |
Cision dans le mouvement Ismaelien: Naissance de la secte Druze a la mort de l'Imam Al-Hakim