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WALIDAN

Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

The terms designating parents in the Koran are walidani and abawani respectively the dual form of walid (father); walida (mother) appears in both the singular and the plural. The term umm and ummahat also designate mother, and the dual form of ab, father. In certain verses the plural aba means ancestors. Natural aspects of parenthood are particularly identified throughout the Koran with maternal functions, pregnancy, giving birth, breastfeeding and weaning (16:78, 39:6, 53:32, 58:2). The Koran (2:232-3) also calls upon divorced mothers to fulfill their natural role as nurses whereas the role of fathers is limited to supplying the nursing mother and the nursling with economic support. The maternal emotions of love and solicitude find emphatic expression in the Koranic story of Moses (28:7-13, 20:38-40). In two verses (7:150 and 20:94), Aaron called his brother Musa ibn umma, thus attributing him to their mother to implore his mercy.

Parents play their part in bringing up their children at the cost of their own comfort and pleasure. Thus, the children are brought up by the joint toil, love and affection of both of the parents. The relations between parents and children have the highest status: "Your God has decreed that you worship none save God, and (that you should) be kind to your parents" (17:23), "Give thanks to Me and to your parents" (31:14). "And We have commanded unto man to treat his parents kindly. His mother carried him (in her womb) with difficulty and delivered him with a pang. The period of carrying him in her womb and sustaining him on her milk is 30 months" (46:15), "Do good to parents. If one or both of them reach old age in your life, say not a word of contempt to them, nor repel them and speak to them a generous word. And out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility and say:

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