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Ismailiyya History: The post-Fatimid period


After the overthrow of the Fatimid caliphate in 567/1171 the Hafiziyya, no longer enjoying
official support, gradually disintegrated. Al-'Adid, the last Fatimid caliph, had appointed his son
Da'ud as his successor with the title al-Hamid li'llah. Da'ud was generally recognized by the
Hafizis as the imam after al-'Adid. He and all other members of the Fatimid family were
permanently detained as prisoners by the Ayyubids. As a result of a pro-Fatimid conspiracy in
Cairo in 568/1172-3 many of the supporters of the deposed dynasty were exiled to Upper Egypt,
which became a hotbed of pro-Fatimid activity. In 572/1176-7 a pretender claiming to be Da'ud
found wide support in qift. When the real Da'ud died as a prisoner in Cairo in 604/1207-8, the
Hafizis asked the Ayyubid al-Malik al-Kamil for permission to mourn him in public. Al-Kamil
granted them permission, but used the occasion to arrest their da'is and confiscate their
property. After Da'ud his son Sulayman mostly seems to have been recognized as the imam.
Sulayman died without child as a prisoner in 645/1248, but some of his partisans claimed that
he had a son who was hidden (see P. Casanova, Les derniers Fatimides, in MIFAO, vi (1897),
415-45). In 697/1298 a pretender appeared in Upper Egypt who claimed to be Da'ud b.
Sulayman b. Da'ud. Still later, about the year 723/1324, Isma'ilis are mentioned in 'Usfun in
Upper Egypt. In Syria a Hafizi community is mentioned at the same time in the Baqi'a
mountains near Safad. In the Yemen the Hafizi cause also lost all official backing with the
Ayyubid conquest. The Tayyibi da'imutlaq 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Walid (d. 612/1215) still composed
polemical treatises and poems against the 'Madjidiyya', but they were already
becoming a rare minority.

Tayyibiyya [q.v.]:

The insignificant Tayyibi communities in Egypt and Syria, known as Amiriyya, are only rarely
mentioned in the sources. Toward the end of the 6th/12th century there is a vague referenceqto
the presence of Amiriyya in Egypt. In Syria a community of Amiriyya is still mentioned about the
year 723/1324 in the Baqi'a and Zabud mountains near Safad. These isolated communities
probably did not survive much longer. Only in the Yemen and India could the Tayyibi da'wa,
under the undisputed leadership of the da'imutlaq, establish itself permanently. After Ibrahim
al-Hamidi the position of da'i mutlaq remained among his descendants until 605/1209, when it
passed to 'Ali b. Muhammad of the Banu 'l-Walid al-Anf family, which was named after his
ancestor Ibrahim al-Anf, who was a prominent supporter of the Salayhids and a descendant of
the Umayyad al-Walid b. 'Utba b. Abi Sufyan. It remained in this family, with only two
interruptions in the 7th/13th century, until 946/1539. The traditional stronghold of the Isma'ili
da'wa in the Yemen was in the Haraz [q.v.] mountains, though there were scattered communities
in other parts of the country. The da'is generally enjoyed the support, or at least protection, of
the Hamdanids [q.v.], who permitted them to reside in San'a' and later, in the 8th/14th century,
in the fortress of Dhu Marmar. Their relations with the Ayyubids and the Rasulids were fair, but
the Zaydi imams were mostly hostile. The Zaydi pretender al-Mansur 'Ali b. Salah al-Din expelled
them from Dhu Marmar in 829/1426 after a prolonged siege, and they established their
residence in the Haraz mountains. The Zaydi Imam al-Mutahhar b. Sharaf al-Din in the
10th/16th century relentlessly persecuted the Banu 'l-Anf and seems to have practically
extirpated the family. The relations with the da'wa in India remained close. There the Tayyibi
community grew mostly undisturbed, though in the first half of the 9th/15th century
persecution under the Sultanate of Gudjarat resulted in mass conversions to Sunnism. In
946/1539 the position of da'imutlaq passed to an Indian, and after his death in 947/1567 the
headquarters were transferred to Gudjarat in India.

After the death of Da'ud b. 'Adjabshah, the 26th da'imutlaq, in 999/1591, the succession was
disputed. While in India Da'ud Burhan al-Din was established, Da'ud b. Adjabshah's
representative in the Yemen, Sulayman b. al-Hasan al-Hindi, claimed to have been designated
successor by the deceased da'imutlaq. The dispute was not resolved and led to the permanent
schism between the Da'udi and Sulaymani factions which accepted separate lines of da'is. Among
the Sulaymanis, whose cause had only few adherents in India, the position of da'imutlaq in
1050/1640 passed to the Yemenite Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. Fahd of the Makrami [q.v.] family,
in which it has remained since with few interruptions. The Makrami da'is established themselves
in Nadjran [q.v.], where they were supported by the Banu Yam [q.v.]. Before 1131/1719 they
conquered the Haraz region in the Yemen and held it against all attempts of the Zaydi imams to
expel them. The Da'i al-Hasan b. Hibat Allah (d. 1189/1775) conquered Hadramawt and
unsuccessfully fought the rising Su'udi dynasty in Central Arabia. From Haraz the Makramis
were expelled in 1289/1872 by the Ottoman general Ahmad Mu

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