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Ablution

[ see WUZU ]

SIBAK AL-KHAYL

Horse is an important and valuable member of the mammalia. Among the earliest evidence of the importance of the horse to human culture are the unearthed wall paintings in the caves of Lascaux, in southern France, dating around 30,000 B.C. The horse first became useful in welfare sometimes before 1500 B.C. when Mesopotamian people began to use horses to pull their chariots. There is however a question rose by Canon Taylor in his Origin of the Aryans (p.161), whether the horse was at first used for drawing chariots or for riding.

ZAMZAM

The word zamzan or zamazim means abundant of water. Some suggests that it means to drink with little gulps. Abdullah bin Abbas narrates that they called the zamzan as subha meaning one which fills stomach. The Prophet also called it khayur ma'in (excellent water). The sacred well is located at the perimeter of the sacred complex of Mecca.

ZAYN AL-ABIDIN (61-94/680-713), 3RD IMAM

"Abu Muhammad Ali bin Hussain, known as Zayn al-Abidin (ornament of the pious) and by the titles of as-Sajjad (the prostrator) and az-Zaki (the pure), was born in Medina on 38/658. He would feed the hungry persons at night, from one to three hundred families; and in daytime, he would have a hundred sheep a day killed for meat, which would be distributed to the needy people. Much of his time he spent sitting on an old piece of matting, fasting all day, or eating a little barely bread. D.M. Donaldson writes in The Shi'ite Religion (London, 1933, p.

ZIKR

The word zikr (pl. azkar), zikra or tazikra is derived from z-k-r appear in 274 Koranic verses, means remembrance or recollection. The most important significance of the first form of the verb is "thinking about" or "calling to mind" with the remembrance of God being the primary focus. The Koran says, "and remember God often" (33:40) and "the remembrance of God makes the heart calm" (13:28).

ZULFIKAR

It means possessor of notches or the Lord of the vertebrae of the back. It was the name borne by a famous sword owned in turn by a pagan called al-As bin Munabbih, who was killed in the battle of Badr. The Prophet acquired it in a booty and presented to Ali bin Abu Talib. The expression of zulfikar (dhu'l fiqar or dhu'l faqar) is explained by the presence of this sword of notches (fukra) or grooves. It was double-edged (shafratani) and its blade was strengthened in the middle by a pole (amud).

ZULFIKAR ALI (920-922/1514-1516), 37TH IMAM

Zulfikar Ali, known as Khalil or Khalilullah, was born most probably in 900/1394, and resided in Anjudan. Syed Imam Shah (d. 926/1520) described the name Shah Khalil most possibly for Imam Zulfikar Ali.

TAQI MUHAMMAD (212-225/828-840), 9TH IMAM

"Ahmad bin Abdullah, Muhammad al-Habib, or Abul Hussain, surnamed at-Taqi (God-fearing), also called Imam Taqi Muhammad, was born in 174/790 and ascended in 212/828. He lived secretly with his followers as a merchant at Salamia. He is also called Sahib al-Rasail (Lord of the epistles). He however retained the services of Abdullah bin Maymun (d. 260/874) as his hujjat.

UMMI

"The word ummi (pl. ummiyun) means unlettered, occurring twice in the Koran as an epithet of the Prophet: "Those who follow the messenger, the ummi Prophet, whom they find written down with the Torah and the Gospels" (7:157); and "Believe then in God, and in His messenger, the ummi Prophet" (7:158).

YAQUB BIN KILLIS

"Yaqub bin Ibn Killis was born in 318/930 in a Jewish family. When he grew young, he came with his father to Egypt and began his political career at the court of Abul Misk Kafur. Very soon, he secured key position because of being intelligent, honest and efficient. He embraced Islam in 357/968. The new vizir Abu Jafar Furat imprisoned him in enmity, but was relieved soon by the intervention of Sharif Muslim al-Hussain. He finally quitted Egypt and entered into the Fatimid services in Maghrib.

TA'ADDUD AL-ZAWJAT (POLYGAMY)

Islam recognizes as a rule only the union of one man and one woman as a valid form of marriage. Under exceptional circumstances, it allows the man more wives than one, but does not allow the woman more husbands than one. Thus while a married woman cannot contract a valid marriage, a married man can do it. There is no difficulty in understanding this differentiation, if the natural duties of man and woman in the preservation and upbringing of human species are kept in view.

TAQIYA

"The word taqiya is derived from the root tuqat means conceal, hide or arrange for protection. It is also suggested that it is rooted from waqqa means keep from or guard someone. Thus, taqiya means precautionary dissimulation. The Koranic term tauqqat is also taken in the meaning of taqiya, to which divergence of opinions have been advanced. Baidawi (d. 685/1286) writes in his Anwar al-Tanzil that, "The qirah of Imam Yaqub (d.

UMRA

The word umra is derived from amara meaning he inhabited a place or paid a visit to it, and in the terminology of Islam, umra means a visit to the Kaba. The word umra occurs twice in one verse (2:196) in the Koran. It differs from hajj in two respects.

YASMIN, PRINCESS

Prince Aly Salomone Khan's first marriage was actualized on May 18, 1936 with Joan Viscountress Camrose (Princess Tajudawla) in Paris, who became the mother of the Present Imam and Prince Amyn Muhammad. She was divorced, and then Prince Aly S. Khan went to United States on business and there met a film star, Rita Hayworth. They were seen about a good deal together. They came to see Imam Sultan Muhammad Shah at Cannes, who asked them if they were really devoted to each other; they both said that they were, so he advised them to get married as soon as possible. Thus, Prince Aly S.

TABARRA

The word tabarra is derived from the verb bara'a meaning to be free of someone. Thus, tabarra minhu means he declared himself not to be connected to or implicated with him. According to Lisan al-Arab, the word tabarra means having nothing to do with or disassociate from some one or something. The Koran says, "And those who followed would say: If only we had one more chance, we would clear ourselves of them, as they have cleared themselves of us" (2:167).

TAQWA

The word taqwa (verb ittaqa) is derived from the root waqa meaning he protected himself from that which harms him.

YAUM AL-IMAMA

It means the

USHR

The tax on land produce was collected at 10% if the land was watered by a stream or rain. This tax was known as ushr.

TABI'I

The word tabi'i (pl. tabi'un) is derived from its verb, tabi'a or taba'a, meaning he followed. Thus, the tabi'i refers to follower, disciple or adherent. The word is of special significance in tradition, where the name tabi is given to those who came after the Companion (sahaba) of the Prophet. The tabi'un are those of the next generation or contemporaries of the Prophet, who did not know him personally but who knew one of his Companions.

TARAWIH

The word tarawih is the plural of tarwiha, which is derived from raha and means the act of taking rest. It denotes the recitation of the whole Koran in the month of Ramzan. It is the performance of the Sunnis, not Shi'ites during the month of Ramzan. This practice was introduced by caliph Umar.


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