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QADR OR TAQDIR - Creation of good and evil

Taqdir, meaning the absolute decree of good and evil by God, an idea with which the word is now indissolubly connected by the popular mind as well as thinking writers, is neither known to the Koran, nor even to Arabic lexicology. There is only one occasion in the Koran on which a derivative of taqdir is used to indicate the fate of a person. Speaking of the wife of Lot, the Koran says, "We ordained (qaddarna) that she shall be of those who remain behind" (15:60, 27:57).

QIYAMAT-I QUBRA

"Qiyamat-i qubra or qaim al-qiyama was a famous occasion commemorated in Alamut on 17th Ramzan, 559/August 8, 1164 when Imam Hasan II came out publicly upon the termination of dawr-i satr. In his speech, he announced himself a legitimate Imam in the descent of Imam al-Nizar. Edward G. Browne writes in A Literary History of Persia (London, 1964, 2:454) that, "This Hasan boldly declared himself to be, not the descendant of Kiya Buzrug Ummid, but of the Fatimid Imam Nizar bin al-Mustansir."

ROSARY [ see SIBHA ]

ROZA [ see SAUM ]

NIZARI KOHISTANI

"Naimuddin bin Jalaluddin bin Muhammad Nizari Kohistani was born in Birjand in 645/1247. He got the rudiments of his formal education at home from his father, who was also a poet himself and a devout Ismaili. Nizari attended school in Birjand and Qain, and studied Persian and Arabic literature. His father was a land-lord in Birjand, but lost his estate during the Mongol onslaught in Kohistan and subsequently, Nizari had to serve at the court of Shamsuddin Muhammad I (643-684/1245-1285), the founder of the Kurt dynasty of Herat; and became a court-poet.

QADR OR TAQDIR - The will of God and the will of man

A great deal of misunderstanding exists as to the relation of the Divine will to the will of man. All the faculties with which man has been endowed have emanated from the great Divine attributes. Yet all human attributes are imperfect, and can be exercised only under certain limitations and to a certain extent.

RADI ABDULLAH (225-268/840-881), 10TH IMAM

"Hussain bin Ahmad or Abu Abdullah, surnamed az-Zaki, known as Hussain ar-Radi, or Radi Abdullah (Servant of God who is satisfied and content), was born in 210/825 and assumed the Imamate in 225/840. He is also called Muhammad and al-Muqtada al-Hadi. His also kept his identity secret being represented by his hujjat, Ahmad, surnamed al-Hakim. Tabari (3:2232) refers to his son, al-Mahdi under the name of Ibn al-Basri (the son of Basra), emphasizing the connection of Imam Radi Abdullah with southern Mesopotamia and the adjoining province of Khuzistan.

RUH

"The term ruh (pl. arwah) is derived from the verb raha meaning to go away, leave, begin or set out. Derived from this root are rawwaha (to refresh, relax, rest); arwaha (to release, relieve, soothe); istarwaha (to breathe, smell, be refreshed, to calm, happy, glad); rih (wind), etc. It literally means soul, spirit or breath of life. The word ruh in different derivatives occurs 21 times in the Koran.

NOOR

The word noor means light, illumination or effulgence. Light in a general sense is that natural agent or influence, which evokes the functional activity of the organ of sight. It is viewed as the medium of visual perception generally. The word noor occurs 49 times in the Koran. The Koran is rich in reference to light, both in the literal as well as in symbolic and metaphoric senses. The most common word for light is noor, although diya appears on three occasion, also misbah and siraj.

QADR OR TAQDIR - Foreknowledge of God

The doctrine of predestination or the decreeing of a good course for one man and an evil course for another, thus finds no support from the Koran, which plainly gives to man the choice to follow one way or the other. But, it is said, the doctrine of the decreeing of good and evil follows from the doctrine of the foreknowledge of God. If God knows what will happen in the future, whether a particular man will take a good or an evil course, it follows that that man must take that particular course, for the knowledge of God cannot be untrue.

RADI ALLAH-O ANHO

The phrase Razi Allah-o anho or Razi Allah-o anha or Razi Allah-o anhum means may God be pleased with him/her/them as the case may be. It is uttered after the the names of the Companions of the Prophet, saints or Pirs.

NURUDDIN ALI (922-957/1516-1550), 38TH IMAM

"His name was Nur-Dahr (the light of the faith), and was also known as Nur-Dahr Khalilullah. His name however in the official list of the Imams appears as Nuruddin Ali. According to another tradition, he was also called Nizar Ali Shah. He mostly resided in Anjudan, and betrothed to a Safavid lady.

QADR OR TAQDIR - God's writing of adversities

Statements are frequently met with in the Koran, in which God is spoken of as having written down the doom of a nation, or a man's term of life, or an affliction. Such verses have also been misconstrued as upholding the doctrine of predestination. The misconception is due to a wrong interpretation of the word kitab, ordinarily carries the significance of writing, but has been freely used in Arabic literature and in the Koran itself in a variety of senses.

RAHMAT ULLAH ALAI-HI

The phrase Rahmat-ul-lah alai-hi or Rahmat-ul-lah alai-ha means may God bless him/her.

RAJM [ see HUDUD ]

PANDIYAT-I JAWANMARDI

"The Pandiyat-i Jawanmardi (maxims of fortitude) is a collection of the advices of Imam Mustansir billah (d. 880/1475), which had been compiled in the time of Imam Abdus Salam (d. 899/1493). The word pandiyat is the plural of pand means advice, and jawanmardi means manliness. The term jawanmardi is the Persian translation of fata means young man or brave youth. The Koran (18:10) called the Seven Sleepers fityan (pl. of fata).

QADR OR TAQDIR - God does not lead astray

A very misconception regarding the teachings of the Koran is that it ascribes to God the attributes of leading astray. Nothing could be farther from truth. While al-Hadi, or the One Who guides, is one of the ninety-nine names of God, al-Mudzill, or One Who leads astray, has never been recognized as such. If leading astray were an attribute of God, as guiding certainly is, the name al-Mudzill should have been included in the list of His names, as al-Hadi is.

RAMDEO

By the end of Rig Vedic period, the fourfold division of society was regarded as fundamental and primeval in India, making its society classified into four castes, i.e., the priest (brahmana), warrior (ksatriya), peasant (vaisya) and serf (sudra). Below the sudra are the people, called untouchable (achhut), outcastes or depressed classes, and sometimes they are called the fifth class (pancama). In Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, there are millions of untouchables, whom Gandhi (1869-1948) called harijan (children of God) in 1920. Dr.

PANI COMPANY

"Pani company or water-supplying is an institution in the Jamatkhana. It supplies water to the faithful daily and during the festive occasions. The word pani means water and company means assemblege, collection or multitude of things. The Arabic word birka means drinking-place or kafas al-ma means water-cage. The word ma' (pl. miyah or amwah) means water, which occurs over 60 times and river over 50 times in the Koran, while fountains, springs, rain, hail, clouds and winds occur less frequently.

QADR OR TAQDIR - <i>Idzlal</i> as ascribed to God

The mistaken idea that God leads people astray arises out of a misconception of the meaning of the word idzlal when it is ascribed to God. The word idzlal carries a variety of meanings besides leading astray. It should be noted that wherever idzlal is attributed to God, it is only in connection with the transgressors (2:26), the unjust (14:27), and the extravagant (40:34), not the people generally.

RASHIDUDDIN SINAN

"Abu'l Hasan bin Suleman bin Muhammad, known as Rashiduddin Sinan was born in 528/1133 at Aqr al-Sudan, a village in the district of Basra. He was handsome, of middle height, with dark eyes and acute, learned, eloquent and quick-witted. He was brought up in Basra, where he became a schoolmaster and was converted to Ismailism. Subsequently, he went to Alamut where he was well received, and indoctrinated with Ismailism. He also studied theology, philosophy and the doctrines of philosophers and Ikhwan as-Safa.

NASKH WA MANSUKH

The word naskh means changing or removing as it is said in Arabic naskhatish shams-azzil meaning the sun removed the shade or nasakhat al-ruhu athar al-qawmi idha adamat meaning the mind obliterated traces of the nation. The word naskh is also used in the law to denote "an order canceling the other order." It appears that once the law given for a people for a particular time must change with the passage and need of time or be improved to pave a way for further progress.

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