The word riba comes from the verbal root raba meaning to grow, increase, addition or excess. It refers to an addition over and above the principal sum lent. In economics, it refers to that surplus income, which the lender receives from the borrower, over and above the principal amount as a reward for waiting or parting with the liquid part of his capital for a specific period of time.
"Imam Nizar was born in 982/1574 in Anjudan, and ascended at the age of 11 years. He is known as Shah Ataullah among the Iranian mystics. His father had brought him in Kahek in 992/1584, and henceforward, Kahek became the next headquarters. Kahek or Kiagrak is situated about 35 kilometers northeast of Anjudan and north-west of Mahallat. It took few years to the Ismailis to settle in Kahek and its locality. He also founded a village near Kuhubandi, known as Kahek of Aqa Nizar, then became known as Bagh-i Takhat. The colony of the farmers in this village was also known as Nizarabad.
Taqdir, meaning the absolute decree of good and evil by God, an idea with which the word is now indissolubly connected by the popular mind as well as thinking writers, is neither known to the Koran, nor even to Arabic lexicology. There is only one occasion in the Koran on which a derivative of taqdir is used to indicate the fate of a person. Speaking of the wife of Lot, the Koran says, "We ordained (qaddarna) that she shall be of those who remain behind" (15:60, 27:57).
There is no indication in the Koran when the last day shall arrive, and it is apparent that such knowledge belongs only to God: "People ask you about the hour. Say: Truly such knowledge is with God
ROZA [ see SAUM ]
"Naimuddin bin Jalaluddin bin Muhammad Nizari Kohistani was born in Birjand in 645/1247. He got the rudiments of his formal education at home from his father, who was also a poet himself and a devout Ismaili. Nizari attended school in Birjand and Qain, and studied Persian and Arabic literature. His father was a land-lord in Birjand, but lost his estate during the Mongol onslaught in Kohistan and subsequently, Nizari had to serve at the court of Shamsuddin Muhammad I (643-684/1245-1285), the founder of the Kurt dynasty of Herat; and became a court-poet.
A great deal of misunderstanding exists as to the relation of the Divine will to the will of man. All the faculties with which man has been endowed have emanated from the great Divine attributes. Yet all human attributes are imperfect, and can be exercised only under certain limitations and to a certain extent.
"Qiyamat-i qubra or qaim al-qiyama was a famous occasion commemorated in Alamut on 17th Ramzan, 559/August 8, 1164 when Imam Hasan II came out publicly upon the termination of dawr-i satr. In his speech, he announced himself a legitimate Imam in the descent of Imam al-Nizar. Edward G. Browne writes in A Literary History of Persia (London, 1964, 2:454) that, "This Hasan boldly declared himself to be, not the descendant of Kiya Buzrug Ummid, but of the Fatimid Imam Nizar bin al-Mustansir."
"The term ruh (pl. arwah) is derived from the verb raha meaning to go away, leave, begin or set out. Derived from this root are rawwaha (to refresh, relax, rest); arwaha (to release, relieve, soothe); istarwaha (to breathe, smell, be refreshed, to calm, happy, glad); rih (wind), etc. It literally means soul, spirit or breath of life. The word ruh in different derivatives occurs 21 times in the Koran.
The word noor means light, illumination or effulgence. Light in a general sense is that natural agent or influence, which evokes the functional activity of the organ of sight. It is viewed as the medium of visual perception generally. The word noor occurs 49 times in the Koran. The Koran is rich in reference to light, both in the literal as well as in symbolic and metaphoric senses. The most common word for light is noor, although diya appears on three occasion, also misbah and siraj.
The doctrine of predestination or the decreeing of a good course for one man and an evil course for another, thus finds no support from the Koran, which plainly gives to man the choice to follow one way or the other. But, it is said, the doctrine of the decreeing of good and evil follows from the doctrine of the foreknowledge of God. If God knows what will happen in the future, whether a particular man will take a good or an evil course, it follows that that man must take that particular course, for the knowledge of God cannot be untrue.
"Hussain bin Ahmad or Abu Abdullah, surnamed az-Zaki, known as Hussain ar-Radi, or Radi Abdullah (Servant of God who is satisfied and content), was born in 210/825 and assumed the Imamate in 225/840. He is also called Muhammad and al-Muqtada al-Hadi. His also kept his identity secret being represented by his hujjat, Ahmad, surnamed al-Hakim. Tabari (3:2232) refers to his son, al-Mahdi under the name of Ibn al-Basri (the son of Basra), emphasizing the connection of Imam Radi Abdullah with southern Mesopotamia and the adjoining province of Khuzistan.
"His name was Nur-Dahr (the light of the faith), and was also known as Nur-Dahr Khalilullah. His name however in the official list of the Imams appears as Nuruddin Ali. According to another tradition, he was also called Nizar Ali Shah. He mostly resided in Anjudan, and betrothed to a Safavid lady.
Statements are frequently met with in the Koran, in which God is spoken of as having written down the doom of a nation, or a man's term of life, or an affliction. Such verses have also been misconstrued as upholding the doctrine of predestination. The misconception is due to a wrong interpretation of the word kitab, ordinarily carries the significance of writing, but has been freely used in Arabic literature and in the Koran itself in a variety of senses.
The phrase Razi Allah-o anho or Razi Allah-o anha or Razi Allah-o anhum means may God be pleased with him/her/them as the case may be. It is uttered after the the names of the Companions of the Prophet, saints or Pirs.
"The Pandiyat-i Jawanmardi (maxims of fortitude) is a collection of the advices of Imam Mustansir billah (d. 880/1475), which had been compiled in the time of Imam Abdus Salam (d. 899/1493). The word pandiyat is the plural of pand means advice, and jawanmardi means manliness. The term jawanmardi is the Persian translation of fata means young man or brave youth. The Koran (18:10) called the Seven Sleepers fityan (pl. of fata).
A very misconception regarding the teachings of the Koran is that it ascribes to God the attributes of leading astray. Nothing could be farther from truth. While al-Hadi, or the One Who guides, is one of the ninety-nine names of God, al-Mudzill, or One Who leads astray, has never been recognized as such. If leading astray were an attribute of God, as guiding certainly is, the name al-Mudzill should have been included in the list of His names, as al-Hadi is.
The phrase Rahmat-ul-lah alai-hi or Rahmat-ul-lah alai-ha means may God bless him/her.
RAJM [ see HUDUD ]
"Pani company or water-supplying is an institution in the Jamatkhana. It supplies water to the faithful daily and during the festive occasions. The word pani means water and company means assemblege, collection or multitude of things. The Arabic word birka means drinking-place or kafas al-ma means water-cage. The word ma' (pl. miyah or amwah) means water, which occurs over 60 times and river over 50 times in the Koran, while fountains, springs, rain, hail, clouds and winds occur less frequently.