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Dictionary and Encyclopedia of ismailism entries

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  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "The word ma'ad is derived from the verb ada or awd signifies to return to a place, and thus ma'ad means the ultimate place of one's returning. It is also treated as a synonym of raja'a, which is also used in the Koran (2:28) to indicate return to God: "Then He will make you die, then He will make you live, then you will be brought back to Him (ilayhi turjaun)". Its verbal form ada denotes to recommence or reiterate.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The word ma'sum is derived from the verb asama, means prevented, hindered, protected, defended, preserved, etc. Hence, ma'sum means one who is incapable of error and sin. In Islamic theology, the Arabic term isma both impeccability and closely related notion of infallibility, which is not an inherent quality, but rather a divine gift bestowed on the Prophets and Imams.

    See Immunity of Prophets and Immunity of Imams

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "The name maghrib (the land of sunset) was given by the Arabs to that virgin part of Africa, which European have called Barbery or Africa Minor, (the French Afrique du Nord), and then North Africa. In north it is bordered by the Mediterranean, and in the south by the Sahara desert. In the west it is extended as far as the Atlantic Ocean, and in the east it extends as far as the borders of Egypt.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The word mahiz means menstruation or the menses, also called hayz – a monthly flow of blood from the uterus. The woman in this condition is called ha’iz or ha’izah. It is a natural monthly discharge of the lining of the uterus. The discharge consists of blood, degenerated cells of the lining, mucus and some bacteria. The menstruation flow normally lasts from four to six days with a variation of two to eight days. A period lasting more than eight days is abnormal. The amount of blood loss average 33 milliliters (ml) or about one ounce.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    Maimundiz was the famous Ismaili stronghold, located to the north of presently village of Shams Kilaya and westward from Alamut. Because of the great altitude, the cold was so extreme as to make it impossible for beasts to find a home or live in that location from the beginning of autumn until the middle of spring. According to Jamiut Tawarikh (p. 122), the construction of the fortress of Maimundiz began in 490/1097, but Kashani (d. 738/1338) determines in 497/1103 in his Zubdat al-Tawarikh (p. 144).

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The Abbasids took notice of the rapid conversion of the Ismailis in Khorasan, notably Nasr bin Ahmad, and insinuated Nuh bin Nasr (331-343/943-954), the son of Nasr bin Ahmad; against his father and the Ismailis. Nuh bin Nasr dethroned his father and conducted a barbarous massacre of the Ismailis in 331/942, known in the Ismaili history as al-mainat al-uzama (great calamity) in Khorasan and Transoxania. An-Nasafi and his chief associates were also executed in the wild operations at Bukhara in 332/943. For this reason, Nasir Khusaro called him Khwaj-i Shahid and Shaikh al-Shahid.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The word maisir is derived from different roots, such as yasara means to become gentle, to draw lots by arrows, or yasar means affluence because gambling bring about profit, or yusr means convenience, because gambling is a means of earning without toil, or yasr means dividing a thing into a number of shares. Zamakhshari (d.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The word majalis is derived from the verb jalasa, meaning to sit down or to hold a session, and majalis therefore means meeting or assembly. (Koran: 68:11-12)

    In pre-Islamic period, the majalis designated an assembly or council of the tribe's notables. In various states of the Middle Ages, an elaborate governmental structure contained a series of majalis, such as majalis al-baladiyya (municipal council), majalis al-wuzura (council of ministers), etc.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The chiragh-i rawshan is also solemnized for the longevity, prosperity and blessing of a person who is alive, known as dawat-i baqa. It also corresponds with the Indian tradition of the hayati majalis. It also exhorts that the Imam is an Everlasting Guide and Epiphany (mazhar) of God on earth. The believers must kindle the lamp of Divine Light in their hearts. Imam Sultan Muhammad Shah also said, "The lamp of the Divine Light exists in you and your hands. This is spoken metaphorically. This lamp always exists in you all" (Zanzibar, 13/9/1899).

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    It almost resembles the practice of the ruhani majalis prevalent in the Indian tradition. When one dies, his family members and relatives assemble in his house for three days, known as the dawat-i fana. His family does not cook food for three days, but only a lamp is kindled. Major J. Biddulph writes in Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh (Karachi, 1977, p. 123) that, "On the evening of the appointed day, a caliph comes to the house, and food is cooked and offered to him.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "The Arabic word for angel is malak (pl. mala'ika), which is derived from alk or alaka, meaning the bearing of messages. Another view traces its root from malk or milk, meaning power. It is also stated that it is derived from uluqatun, means messenger. In Arabic the person whom the message is assigned to convey is also called uluqat. The word malak and mala'ika occur 68 times in the Koran.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    A'FAQ Horizon

    A'MIR Civilized

    A'QIB Following

    A'ZAM Greatest

    ABBAS Gloomy

    ABDULLAH Servant of God

    ABID Devoted

    ABUZAR Father of Particle

    ADIB Scholar

    ADIL Just

    ADNAN N.Arabian

    AFROZ Dazzling

    AFTAB Sun

    AFZAL Best

    AHMAD Praiseworthy

    AKBAR Great

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "He was born in 302/914 in Kairwan, the first Fatimid Imam to be born in Maghrib. His name was Ismail and kunya was Abu Tahir, surnamed al-Mansur bi-Amrillah (Victorious by the command of God). He acceded the throne on 334/945 during the time when Abu Yazid had laid a siege over Susa.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    It simply means stage. The division of the Koranic suras on the basis of manzil is made to facilitate the reading of the entire Koran within a week. The manzil are seven in number as follows:-

    1. Sura Fatiha (1) to Sura Nisa (4)

    2. Sura Maida (5) to Sura Tauba (9)

    3. Sura Yunus (10) to Sura Nahl (16)

    4. Sura Bani Israel (17) to Sura Furqan (25)

    5. Sura Shora (26) to Sura Yasin (36)

    6. Sura Safaat (37) to Sura Hujurat (49), and

    7. Sura Ka'af (50) to Sura Naas (114).

    MARRIAGE [ see NIKAH ]

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin
  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    It means what God does, is well done. It is usually uttered at the end of an act and reminds us that, ultimately, whatever comes from God, and that whatever is realized is not by human effort alone but through His Will.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    Masiyaf is a town of central Syria on the eastern side of the Jabal al-Nusairia, situated at 33 miles to the east of Baniyas and 28 miles to the east of Hammah. The word masiyaf is derived from the second form verb sayyafa means to pass the summer. The pronunciation and orthography of the name varies between the form, Masyad, Masyaf, Mayat, Masyath, Masyab, Masyah and Messiat. The stronghold of Masiyaf lies to the northeast of the settlement, at the foot of the Jabal al-Bahra. It was an Arab citadel, perched on a rocky limestone block.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The word masjid is derived from sajd (prostration), thus it means the place of prostration. The English word mosque derives via French mosquee, the old French mousquaie, the old Italian moschea and moscheta, while moschee in German and mescit in Turkish - all came from the Arabic via Spanish mezquita. In East Africa, the mosque is commonly spoken of in Swahili as msikiti (pl. misikiti). In Indonesia, it is pronounced as mesigit, masigit and maseghit.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The status of women in Islam, especially with regards to such issues as marriage, inheritance, veiling and seclusion has received a great deal of scholarly attention. For women, the mosque meant access to almost every aspect of public life. Debarring or limiting their access means restricting their participation in public life. Gender segregation, as seen in most mosques today, is such a limitation, for it limits women's full access. This both hampers their participation and can even shut them out completely.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The temple of Jerusalem is honoured in the Koran (17:1) as al-majid al-Aqsa (lit. the remote mosque). The sacredness of Jerusalem is emphasized on numerous places. Abraham migrated to the land of Canaanite around 1805 BC. The Koran states: "And We made them the greater losers. But We delivered him and (his nephew) Lot (and directed them) to the land which We have blessed for the nations" (21: 69-71). The Koran reports Moses telling his people: "O my people!

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The Kaba stands in the center of a parallelogram whose dimensions are as follows: North-west side 545 feet, south-east side 553 feet, north-east side 360 feet and south-west side 364 feet. This are is known as al-Masjid al-Haram, or the Sacred Mosque, the famous mosque in Mecca. In the Koran this name occurs in revelations of the early Meccan period, as in 17:1. The area of the Sacred Mosque contains, besides the Kaba, the Maqam Ibrahim and the Zamzam buildings. The term Baitullah (House of God) is applied to the whole enclosure, although it more specially denotes the Kaba itself.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    MASJID-I NABWI [ see MASJID ]

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The word mata salamat means mother of peace. This is a unique title awarded only to three mothers of different Imams during last thirteen hundred years, such as Sarcar Bibi Marium Khatoon, Lady Aly Shah and Umm Habibeh.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    Mlle Blanche Yvette Labrousse, the widow of Imam Sultan Muhammad Shah was born on February 15, 1906 in Sete, near Marseilles. Her parent moved to Cannes when she was a baby. Her father was a tram-conductor. She always remembered her parent for the moral code instilled in her. She was granted the title of Miss Lyon and became Miss France in 1930 in a nation-wide beauty contest, and in the same year she went to Rio de Janiero to represent her country at an international event. She married to Imam Sultan Muhammad Shah at the age of 39 years on October 9, 1944 in Switzerland.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin
  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    When the Prophet summoned the nations the message of Islam, one of his letters was addressed to Shurahbil bin Amr, the ruler of Ghassan, and the vassal of Caesar of Rome. The letter of the Prophet was carried by Harith bin Umayr, who was killed at a place called Mauta, a village not far from Balka in Syria. The murder of the Muslim envoy by a feudatory of the Roman empire was an outrage, which could not be passed over in silence.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "The Shi'ites from Iran were not granted equal status by their Arab co-citizens in the social system of Kufa, and thus they were called mawali (sing. mawla) means clients, a term to indicate inferior social standing, or second-class citizens. The expression mawla at the latest stage of its evolution means the people descended from foreign families whose ancestors, or even they themselves, on accepting Islam, have been adopted into an Arab tribe, either as freed slaves or freeborn aliens.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    Some 127 meanings of the word mawla have been given in the lexicons, notably master, lord, or one who deserves superior authority, guardian or patron. The Koran says, "God is Guardian (mawla), and He gives life to the dead" (42:9) and "He is your Master (mawla); how excellent the Master (mawla) and how excellent the Helper!" (22:70). The word mawla occurs in different forms in the Koran, such as mawali (4:33.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The soul is the principle of life, which leaves the body at the moment of death. Human life is not the individual's property but a divine gift to be used in God's service or to be dedicated to a divine cause or to God Himself. Death is no longer the end of life, but only the end of the appointed period (ajal) in which humans are tested in the world. Death in this perspective is simply the end of a testing period and a threshold, which must necessarily passed.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "He was born in Ahwaz in Iran. He belonged to the Makhzumi clan and was the mawla (freed slave) of Imam Muhammad al-Bakir and Imam Jafar Sadik. His surname al-Qaddah is usually taken to mean oculist, which seems extremely doubtful. It is a word connected with al-qidah i.e., an ancient Arab play or a form of divination with the help of arrows. Tusi (d. 460/1068) in Tahdhibul Ahkam while dealing with Maymun al-Qaddah, explains the word as "a man who practises the game of qidah (yabra'ul qidah).

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The word mazhar is derived from zahr meaning to manifest or become apparent. Thus, the mazhar means epiphanic form, or more accurately theophany, that is to say a manifestation of God. In Ismaili tariqah, the Imam is the mazhar, who bears Divine Light in the terrestrial world. He is the most perfect expression of the divine hypostasis because in him the theomorphosis is fully realized and the Absolute becomes manifest to mortal eyes.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The city in the Arabian peninsula that was the birthplace of the Prophet of Islam, which due to the presence of the Kaba therein, is revered as one of the holy cities in Islamic culture. Mecca was also known as Makuraba. Mecca is explicitly mentioned twice in two relatively passages of the Koran (in 48:24, makka; and in 3:96 spelt bakka). Several other passages make reference to the city or its surroundings, such as 14:37: "a valley without cultivation." Initially it was only the tribe of Qoraish, which lived in Mecca, and of which the Prophet was a member.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "The Treaty of Hudaibia had been nearly two years in force. Acting on the discretion allowed by the treaty, Banu Khazao and Banu Bakr, inhabiting Mecca and its neighborhood, the former had become the allies of the Prophet, the latter had entered into an alliance with Qoraish. These two rival tribes had been fighting among them for a long time. Aided by a party of Qoraish, Banu Bakr attacked by night an unsuspecting encampment of Banu Khazao, and slew several of them. The Khazao were forced to take refuge in the Kaba, where they were also persecuted.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    Medina, one of the major settlements of the Hijaz and some 350 km to the north of Mecca, was in pre-Islamic times commonly called Yathrib (the Iathrippa of the Greek geographers). The town is named in the Koran (33:13) where the Medinan Muslims are addressed as "people of Yathrib" (ahl yathrib). This name was also in vogue in pre-Islamic poetry and in the Constitution of Medina.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    Meditation is a deep religious thought over a particular subject. It is a strenuous spiritual exercise requiring composure of mind, internal quietitude, abstraction from sense and persistent concentration of attention. It can also be defined briefly as devotion or contemplation in a particular pious direction. The term is invariably used in an esoteric sense and associated with human indulgence in establishing communion with the Divine.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "The word mehmani means hospitality. When one makes a private audience with the Imam, it is called mehmani, and before that he presents a najwa (offering) to the Imam. There are different words in Persian for the hospitality, viz. mehman-dari, mehman-parwari and mehman nawazi. Thus the proper word mehmani means an entertainment, banquet, feast or hospitality.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The First MicroFinance Bank Ltd (FMFBL) is the Pakistan's first private sector micro credit institution licensed by State Bank of Pakistan under the Microfinance Ordinance, 2001. The Ordinance defines that the FMFBL borrowers are those whose annual income is below the taxable limit. The Microfinance Institutions are allowed under this Ordinance to provide a whole range of services under one roof such as granting loans, generating deposits, providing remittance facilities and other related financial services.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    MIRACLE [ see MUJIZAH ]

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The word miraj is derived from uruj means to ascend. The Koran (70:4) says, "To Him ascend the angels and soul" (taruljul malaikatu war'ruhi ilaihi), and in 97:4: "Angels and soul (from Him) descend (tanz'zalul malaikatu wa'ruhi), and also in 70:3: "Lord of the ways of ascent" (minal'lahi zil ma'arij).

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The reform introduced by Islam into the rules relating to inheritance is twofold; it makes the female a co-sharer with the male, and divides the property of the deceased person among his heirs on a democratic basis, instead of handling it all over to the eldest son, as is done by the law of primogeniture. The Arabs had a very strong tradition that he alone could inherit who smites with the spear, and therefore they did not give any portion of inheritance to such of the heirs as were not capable of meeting the enemy and fighting in battles.

  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin
  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin
  • Encyclopedia Topic
    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "The important task before the Prophet after migration was to determine and clarify the relations between the various tribes and the Muslims in Medina. The Jews were a considerable power in Medina. It appears that they were Arabs by descent, but formed a distinct unit by reason of their adoption of Judaism. They were subdivided into three clans, the Banu Qainuqa, Banu Nazir and Banu Quraiza. The other inhabitants of the town were the Aws and Khazraj, always at war with each other.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The word mizan (pl. mawazin) is derived from the root wazn meaning the knowing of the measure of a thing. It is true that the measure of material things is judged by a pair of scales or by some other implement, but the deeds of man need no scales for their measurement.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "Muhammad bin Ali, surnamed al-Mohtadi is reported to have born in 500/1106. He was the first Ismaili Nizari Imam to be born in Iran. He is also called Muhtab and Muhammad I.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The Arabic word mu’min (pl. mu’minun) is the active participle of form 4th of the root –m-n means to believe. The word mu’min thus means believer or faithful. In order to qualify as a mu’min, one must believe in the Unity of God, the finality of the Prophet, belief in God’s earliest prophets, His revealed books, His angels and the hereafter. In Koran, the attitude of true believers towards God is characterized by gratitude, awe, repentance and submission.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "Al-Muayyad fid-din ash-Shirazi was born in 390/1000 in Shiraz. He was an outstanding da'i, orator, prolific writer, poet and politician. His father, tracing his link from a Daylami Ismaili family was also a da'i with some influence in the Buwahid orbits of Fars. In one of poems he narrates in his Diwan al-Muayyad (poem no. 4) that, "I wish I should get a chance to offer my life as a sacrifice for you, O my Lord.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    Mubarak or mabruk is derived from baraka (to bless). It means be blessed or good luck. It is a customary wish extended on special occasions.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    The word muhajir (pl. muhajirin) means the emigrant, one who flies or forsake his home, is the name often applied in the Koran to those followers of the Prophet, who had migrated from Mecca to Medina with him. The word is derived from hijra. The term muhajir is not applied to the Prophet himself, but only to those who migrated with, before or after him and later made up a large portion of the population of Medina.

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    Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

    "Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Ali, known as al-Bakir was born on 1st Rajab, 57/October 15, 677. He assumed Imamate at the age of 37 years. He possessed extensive knowledge in religion matters, and because of that, according to Yaqubi, he was nicknamed al-Bakir (split open, or revealer of secret science), as it is said, tabaqqara al-rajulu fi'l aw fi'l mal means the man became abundant in knowledge or he enhanced himself in knowledge. But according to Ibn Khallikan, he was so called because he collected an ample treasure or fund (tabaqqar) of knowledge.

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